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OSCOLA
Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities
Fourth Edition
Faculty of Law, University of Oxford
www.law.ox.ac.uk/oscola
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 General notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Citations and footnotes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.1 Citing cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
1.1.2 Citing legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.3 Citing secondary sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.4 Order of sources in footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 Subsequent citations, cross-references and Latin ‘gadgets’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.1 Subsequent citations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.2 Cross-references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.3 Latin ‘gadgets’. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3 Punctuation, ranges of numbers and years, and foreign words . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.1 Punctuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.2 Ranges of numbers and years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.3 Foreign words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4 Citing foreign materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.5 Quotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6 Tables and lists of abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6.1 Lists of abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6.2 Tables of cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6.3 Tables of legislation and other tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.7 Bibliographies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2 Primary Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1 Cases from England and Wales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.1 General principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Case citations including neutral citations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Case citations without neutral citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.2 Case names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Short forms of case names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Judicial review applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Attorney General’s references. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Variations in the name of a case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.3 Neutral citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.4 Law reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
The ‘best report’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Heavily edited reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Unreported cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Reports using case numbers in the citation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.1.5 Courts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.1.6 Pinpoints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.7 Judges’ names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1.8 Subsequent history of a case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.1.9 Cases before 1865 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The English Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Other older cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2 Cases from Scotland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.3 Cases from Northern Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4 UK primary legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4.1 Names of statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4.2 Parts of statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4.3 Older statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.4 Explanatory notes to statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.5 Bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.6 Wales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.7 Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Acts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Bills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.4.8 Northern Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5 UK secondary legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5.1 Statutory instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5.2 Rules of court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.5.3 Parts of statutory instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.5.4 Wales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.5.5 Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.5.6 Northern Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6 European Union legal sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6.1 EU legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Short forms and pinpoints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Older EU legislation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.6.2 Judgments of the European Court of Justice and General Court. . . 30
Opinions of Advocates General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.6.3 Decisions of the European Commission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.7 The European Court of Human Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.7.1 Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.7.2 Decisions and reports of the European Commission on Human
Rights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.8 Cases and legislation from other jurisdictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.8.1 Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.8.2 Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3 Secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.1 General principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.1.1 Authors’ names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.1.2 Titles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.1.3 Parts, chapters, pages and paragraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.1.4 Electronic sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.1.5 Subsequent citations and short forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2 Books. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.1 Authored books. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.2 Edited and translated books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.2.3 Contributions to edited books. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.2.4 Older works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.2.5 Books of authority and institutional works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.2.6 Encyclopedias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.2.7 Looseleaf services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.3 Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.3.1 Hard copy journals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.3.2 Case notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.3.3 Forthcoming articles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.3.4 Online journals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.3.5 Working papers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.4 Other secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4.1 General principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4.2 Hansard and parliamentary reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.4.3 Command papers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.4.4 Law Commission and Scottish Law Commission reports. . . . . . . . . 41
3.4.5 European Commission documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.4.6 Conference papers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.4.7 Theses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4.8 Websites and blogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4.9 Newspaper articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4.10 Interviews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4.11 Personal communications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4 Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1 Guide to neutral citations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1.1 United Kingdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1.2 England and Wales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1.3 Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1.4 Northern Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1.5 Tribunals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2 Abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2.1 Abbreviations of the names of law reports and journals. . . . . . . . . . 45
Law reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Journals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.2.2 Abbreviations used in legal historical works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2.3 Abbreviations of the titles of books of authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2.4 Abbreviations in case names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2.5 Abbreviations of words and phrases in footnotes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.3 Guides for other jurisdictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.4 Other useful sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Oscola Quick Reference Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . back cover
Introduction
There are two golden rules for the citation of legal authorities. One is consistency.
The other is consideration for the reader. Legal writing is more persuasive when the
author refers to legal materials in a clear, consistent and familiar way. When it is easy
to identify and to find the author’s sources, it becomes easier for the reader to follow
the argument. The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities
(OSCOLA) is designed to help the author to achieve consistency and to make life
easier for the reader.
OSCOLA does not purport to be comprehensive, but gives rules and examples for
the main UK legal primary sources, and for many types of secondary sources. As far
as possible, the guidelines in OSCOLA are based on common practice in UK legal
citation, but with a minimum of punctuation. When citing materials not mentioned
in OSCOLA, use the general principles in OSCOLA as a guide, and try to maintain
consistency.
OSCOLA is a guide to legal citation, not a style guide. For advice on punctuation,
grammar and writing style, use the most recent editions of Fowler’s Modern English
Usage, The Oxford English Dictionary, and Hart’s Rules. Hart’s Rules is particularly
useful for information about typographical conventions, but note that the legal
citation section is not always consistent with OSCOLA.
OSCOLA was first devised by Peter Birks in 2000, in consultation with law students
and faculty at Oxford University, and with Oxford University Press and Hart
Publishing. It is used by the Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal, and
the editors of that journal have also played an important role in its development.
Subsequent editions of OSCOLA were produced in 2002 (by Professor Birks) and
in 2004 (revised 2006, both by Timothy Endicott and Sandra Meredith). This latest
revision of OSCOLA provides more detailed coverage of domestic legal sources, and
in particular the treatment of Welsh, Scottish and Northern Irish sources has been
considerably expanded.
Although originally designed for use within Oxford University, OSCOLA is now
used by law schools throughout the UK and overseas, and by a number of legal
journals and publishers. In recognition of the wider usage of OSCOLA, an editorial
advisory board was established in advance of this revision. We are grateful to the
members of the advisory board (Ruth Bird, Naomi Chapman, Peter Clinch, Timothy
Endicott, Richard Hart, Barbara Lauriat, John Louth and Tracey Varnava) for their
invaluable assistance. Peter Clinch, in particular, was very helpful. Others to whom
we are grateful for their advice on aspects of this revision are Paul Brand, Mike
Macnair, Gareth Ryan, Adrian Zuckerman, and those users of OSCOLA who wrote
1
to us with comments during the revision. Any errors and omissions remain entirely
our responsibility. Finally, we would like to thank Hart Publishing for their generous
help with the design.
We are also grateful to Hart Publishing for agreeing to publish OSCOLA while
allowing us to continue to make the online version available free of charge from the
OSCOLA website. We hope that users of OSCOLA will find the published version
to be a useful resource. Some small changes were made when preparing OSCOLA
for publication, and an index was added, but the current online version and the
published version are the same.
We hope that the revised standard shows the consideration for authors and readers
that motivated Professor Birks to devise a uniform standard for the citation of legal
authorities.
Sandra Meredith and Donal Nolan
February 2012
OSCOLA is updated every two to three years. Please send feedback to oscola@
law.ox.ac.uk.
The OSCOLA website (www.law.ox.ac.uk/oscola) provides support materials for
Endnote and other bibliographic software, a link to Cardiff University’s online
tutorial for OSCOLA, and other materials.
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1
General notes
1.1 Citations and footnotes
When writing for an academic or professional audience, provide evidence for your
claims by citing your sources in footnotes. Legal writing cites primary legal sources
(cases, statutes and so on), as well as secondary sources such as books, journal
articles, websites and policy statements.
OSCOLA is a footnote style: all citations appear in footnotes. OSCOLA does not use
endnotes or in-text citations, such as ‘(Brown, 2007)’. Longer works, such as books
and theses, also include citations in tables of cases and legislation, and bibliographies.
When citing any source, either directly (as a quotation) or indirectly (by paraphrasing
or referring to ideas in a source), cite the reference in a footnote, in the style indicated
in OSCOLA.
Indicate footnotes with a superscript number which should appear after the relevant
punctuation in the text (if any). Put the footnote marker at the end of a sentence,
unless for the sake of clarity it is necessary to put it directly after the word or phrase
to which it relates. If the word or phrase to which the footnote marker relates is
in brackets, put the marker before the closing bracket. A quotation need not be
footnoted separately from the name of the source from which it is derived if the two
appear in the same sentence. Otherwise, separate notes should be used.
Close footnotes with a full stop (or question or exclamation mark). Where more than
one citation is given in a single footnote reference, separate them with semi-colons.
1.1.1 Citing cases
When citing cases, give the name of the case, the neutral citation (if appropriate), and
volume and first page of the relevant law report, and where necessary the court. If the
name of the case is given in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the footnote.
It is well represented in the case law, perhaps most notably in the
expression of the no-conflict rule advocated by Lord Upjohn in Phipps
v Boardman,31 and in the earlier Court of Appeal decision in Boulting
v Association of Cinematograph, Television and Allied Technicians.32 In
Boulting [or ‘in the Boulting case’], Upjohn LJ said that the rule ‘must
be applied realistically to a state of affairs which discloses a real conflict
of duty and interest and not to some theoretical or rhetorical conflict’.33
In Phipps, Lord Upjohn developed his view of the rule further by adding
that there must be a ‘real sensible possibility of conflict’.34
3
The relevant footnotes would appear as follows:
[1967] 2 AC 46 (HL).
[1963] 2 QB 606 (CA).
33
Boulting (n 32) 638.?? OR?? 33 ibid 638.
34
Phipps (n 31) 124.
31
32
The numbers at the end of footnotes 33 and 34 are called ‘pinpoints’; they give the
page on which the quotation can be found. It is also acceptable to include the full case
reference in all footnotes.
1.1.2 Citing legislation
A citation in a footnote is not required when citing legislation if all the information
the reader needs about the source is provided in the text, as in the following sentence:
This case highlights the far-reaching judicial role ushered in by the
Human Rights Act 1998.
Where the text does not include the name of the Act or the relevant section, this
information should be provided in a footnote.
British courts must only consider Strasbourg jurisprudence: they are not
bound by it.1
1
Human Rights Act 1998, s 2.
1.1.3 Citing secondary sources
If relying on or referring to a secondary source, such as a book or an article, provide
a citation for the work in a footnote.
Hart wrote that the doctrine of precedent is compatible with ‘two
types of creative or legislative activity’: distinguishing the earlier case
by ‘narrowing the rule extracted from the precedent’, and widening the
rule by discarding ‘a restriction found in the rule as formulated from the
earlier case’. 34
34
4
HLA Hart, The Concept of Law (2nd edn, Clarendon Press 1994) 135.
1.1.4 Order of sources in footnotes
When citing more than one source of the same kind for a single proposition, put
the sources in chronological order, with the oldest first. Separate the citations with
semi-colons, and do not precede the final citation with ‘and’. If one or more of the
sources are more directly relevant than the others, cite these first, and then cite the
less relevant ones in a new sentence, beginning ‘See also’. If citing legislation and case
law for a single proposition, put the legislation before the cases, and if citing primary
and secondary sources for a single proposition, put the primary sources before the
secondary ones.
FH Newark, ‘The Boundaries of Nuisance’ (1949) 65 LQR 480; Richard Kidner, ‘Nuisance
and Rights of Property’ [1998] Conv 267; Ken Oliphant, ‘Unblurring the Boundaries
of Nuisance’ (1998) 6 Tort L Rev 21; Paula Giliker, ‘Whither the Tort of Nuisance? The
Implications of Restrictions on the Right to Sue in Hunter v Canary Wharf’ (1999) 7
Torts LJ 155.
1
Brent v Haddon (1619) Cro Jac 555, 79 ER 476; Broder v Saillard (1876) 2 Ch D 692 (Ch);
Pemberton v Bright [1960] 1 All ER 792 (CA). See also Torette House Pty Ltd v Berkman
(1939) 62 CLR 637, 659 (Dixon J).
2
Further details of how to cite cases, legislation and secondary sources can be found
in parts 2 and 3 of OSCOLA. The appendix includes lists of abbreviations that can
be used in footnotes.
1.2 Subsequent citations, cross-references and Latin ‘gadgets’
1.2.1 Subsequent citations
In a subsequent citation of a source, briefly identify the source and provide a crosscitation in brackets to the footnote in which the full citation can be found. If the
subsequent citation is in the footnote immediately following the full citation, you can
generally use ‘ibid’ instead.
For subsequent citations of cases, a short form of the case name is sufficient to identify
the source. Subsequent citations of legislation may use abbreviations or other short
forms. Subsequent citations of secondary sources require only the author’s or authors’
surname(s), unless several works by the same author are being cited, in which case
the surname and the title of the work (or a short form of the title) should be given.
Note that it is also acceptable to give the full citation every time a source is cited, and
some publishers and law schools may prefer this to the use of short forms. You should
always do this if the previous citation was in an earlier chapter.
EXAMPLE of subsequent citation of a case
In this example, a citation for Austin v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis is
provided in footnote 1. As the name of the case is given in the text, it is not given
in the footnote. The second citation at footnote 2 pinpoints several paragraphs in
the case with an attribution to the relevant judge in brackets. The third citation at
footnote 7 gives a short form of the case name and a cross-citation to the full citation.
1
[2009] UKHL 5, [2009] AC 564.
ibid [34] (Lord Hope), [39] (Lord Scott), [43]–[47] (Lord Walker), [58]–[60] (Lord
Neuberger).
2
…
7
Austin (n 1).
5
EXAMPLE of subsequent citation of legislation
This example shows legislation for which a short form could be used in a subsequent
citation. The short form is indicated in brackets at the end of the full citation. In
such cases, the short form can be used without a cross-citation to the full citation
where the proximity of the full citation enables this to be done without confusing the
reader. Where that is not the case, a further full citation should be provided, with the
result that cross-citation is never necessary.
Council Directive (EC) 93/104 concerning certain aspects of the organisation of
working time [1993] OJ L307/18 (Working Time Directive).
32
…
Working Time Directive, art 2.
40
EXAMPLE of subsequent citation of a book
This example shows a citation of a book which is first cited (in full) at footnote 1,
cited again in footnote 26 with a cross-citation to footnote 1, and then cited again at
footnote 27.
1
Robert Stevens, Torts and Rights (OUP 2007).
…
26
Stevens (n 1) 110.
27
ibid 271–78.
EXAMPLE of subsequent citation of two works by the same author
In this example, two different works by the same author are cited. The subsequent citation
provides the author’s surname and the title of the work, or a short form of the title.
Andrew Ashworth, ‘Testing Fidelity to Legal Values: Official Involvement and Criminal
Justice’ (2000) 63 MLR 633, 635.
27
28
Andrew Ashworth, Principles of Criminal Law (6th edn, OUP 2009) 68.
…
35
Ashworth, ‘Testing Fidelity to Legal Values’ (n 27) 635-37.
…
46
6
Ashworth, Principles of Criminal Law (n 28) 73.
1.2.2 Cross-references
Cross-references direct the reader to points of substantive discussion elsewhere in
your work. Avoid sending the reader off to another part of the text when a short point
could as easily be restated. Never make a cross-reference that will be difficult for the
reader to find, such as ‘See above’. A good cross-reference takes the reader straight
to the very place: ‘n 109’ or, within the same chapter, ‘text to n 32’. Do not crossrefer to ‘Chapter 6A2(c)’ unless you have running headers on each page showing the
sequence of sub-headings. Use ‘See …’ only when you actually want the reader to
look at the place indicated, for example ‘See n 109’.
Pagination may change from draft to draft, especially in preparation for publication.
It is therefore easiest to cross-refer to footnote markers, for example ‘Text to n 107
in ch 7’. Cross-reference functions in word processors can help you keep track of
changes in footnote numbers.
1.2.3 Latin ‘gadgets’
Avoid the use of ‘Latin gadgets’ such as supra, infra, ante, id, op cit, loc cit, and contra,
which are not widely understood. The abbreviation ‘ibid’, which is short f

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