Description

Review the material in Chapter 20 and respond to the following:

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Introduction
In Unit 7 you will be introduced to the IS-LM Model and its functions. You will learn the theoretical background of Money Demand and how it is determined.

Unit 7 is one of the most difficult and important units and is the base for further study on economics and finance.Reading Assignment
Read Chapters 19, 20, 21, 22 of the Textbook, Money and Banking (Robert E. Wright, Vincenzo Quadrini)
Video ResourcesThe Fraser Institute. (2020, January 29). Essential Milton Friedman: The theory of money and prices [Video]. YouTube. Khan Academy. (2012, March 1). Aggregate demand | Aggregate demand and aggregate supply | Macroeconomics | Khan Academy [Video]. YouTube.  

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Preface
This book is designed to help you internalize the basics of money and banking. There is a little math,
some graphs, and some sophisticated vocabulary, but nothing terribly difficult, if you put your brain
to it. The text’s most important goal is to get you to think for yourselves. To fulfill that goal, each
section begins with one or more questions, called Learning Objectives, and ends with Key Takeaways
that provide short answers to the questions and smartly summarize the section in a few bullet points.
Most sections also contain a sidebar called Stop and Think. Rather than ask you to simply repeat
information given in the chapter discussion, the Stop and Think sidebars require that you apply what
you (should have) learned in the chapter to a novel situation. You won’t get them all correct, but that
isn’t the point. The point is to stretch your brain. Where appropriate, the book also drills you on
specific skills, like calculating bond prices. Key terms and chapter-level objectives also help you to
navigate and master the subject matter. The book is deliberately short and right to the point. If you
hunger for more, read one or more of the books listed in the Suggested Reading section at the end of
each chapter. Keep in mind, however, that the goal is to internalize, not to memorize. Allow this book
to inform your view of the world and you will be the better for it, and so will your loved ones.
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Chapter 1
Money, Banking, and Your World
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
By the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
1.
Describe how ignorance of the principles of money and banking has injured the lives of everyday people.
2.
Describe how understanding the principles of money and banking has enhanced the lives of everyday
people.
3.
Explain how bankers can simultaneously be entrepreneurs and lend to entrepreneurs.
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1.1 Dreams Dashed
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
1.
How can ignorance of the principles of money and banking destroy your dreams?
At 28, Ben is in his prime. Although tall, dark, and handsome enough to be a movie star, Ben’s real
passion is culinary, not thespian. Nothing pleases him more than applying what he learned earning his
degrees in hospitality and nutrition to prepare delicious yet healthy appetizers, entrees, and desserts for
restaurant-goers. He chafes, therefore, when the owner of the restaurant for which he works forces him to
use cheaper, but less nutritional, ingredients in his recipes. Ben wants to be his own boss and thinks he
sees a demand for his style of tasty, healthy cuisine. Trouble is, Ben, like most people, came from humble
roots. He doesn’t have enough money to start his own restaurant, and he’s having difficulty borrowing
what he needs because of some youthful indiscretions concerning money. If Ben is right, and he can
obtain financing, his restaurant could become a chain that might revolutionize America’s eating habits,
rendering Eric Schlosser’s exposé of the U.S. retail food industry, Fast Food Nation (2001),
as The Jungle (1901),
[2]
[1]
as obsolete
Upton Sinclair’s infamous description of the disgusting side of the early
meatpacking industry. If Ben can get some financial help but is wrong about Americans preferring natural
ingredients to hydrogenized this and polysaturated that, he will have wasted his time and his financial
backers may lose some money. If he cannot obtain financing, however, the world will never know
whether his idea was a good one or not. Ben’s a good guy, so he probably won’t turn to drugs and crime
but his life will be less fulfilling, and Americans less healthy, if he never has a chance to pursue his dream.
Married for a decade, Rose and Joe also had a dream, the American Dream, a huge house with a big,
beautiful yard in a great neighborhood. The couple could not really afford such a home, but they found a
lender that offered them low monthly payments. It seemed too good to be true because it was. Rose and
Joe unwittingly agreed to a negative amortization mortgage with aballoon payment. Their monthly
payments were so low because they paid just part of the interest due each year and none of the (growing)
principal. When housing prices in their area began to slide downward, the lender foreclosed, although
they had never missed a payment. They lost their home and, worse, their credit. The couple now rents a
small apartment and harbors a deep mistrust of the financial system.
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Rob and Barb had a more modest dream of a nice house in a good location with many conveniences, a low
crime rate, and a decent public school system. They found a suitable home, had their offer accepted, and
obtained a conventional thirty-year mortgage. But they too discovered that their ignorance of the financial
system came with a price when they had difficulty selling their old house. They put it up for sale just as the
Federal Reserve,
[3]
America’s central bank (monetary authority), decided to raise the interest rate because
the economy, including the housing market, was too hot (growing too quickly), portending a higher price
level across the economy (inflation). Higher interest meant it was more expensive to borrow money to buy
a house (or anything else for that matter). To compensate, buyers decreased the amount they were willing
to offer and in some cases stopped looking for a new home entirely. Unable to pay the mortgage on both
houses, Rob and Barb eventually sold their old house for much less than they had hoped. The plasma TV,
new carpeting, playground set in the yard, sit-down mower, and other goods they planned to buy
evaporated. That may have been good for the economy by keeping inflation in check, but Rob and Barb,
like Rose, Joe, and Ben, wished they knew more about the economics of money, banking, and interest
rates.
Samantha too wished that she knew more about the financial system, particularly foreign exchange. Sam,
as her friends called her, had grown up in Indiana, where she developed a vague sense that people in other
countries use money that is somehow different from the U.S. dollar. But she never gave the matter much
thought, until she spent a year in France as an exchange student. With only $15,000 in her budget, she
knew that things would be tight. As the dollar depreciated (lost value) vis-à-vis France’s currency, the
euro, she found that she had to pay more and more dollars to buy each euro. Poor Sam ran through her
budget in six months. Unable to obtain employment in France,she returned home embittered, her
conversational French still vibrating with her Indiana twang.
Jorge would have been a rich man today if his father had not invested his inheritance in U.S.
government bonds in the late 1960s. The Treasury promptly paid the interest contractually due on those
bonds, but high rates of inflation and interest in the 1970s and early 1980s reduced their prices and wiped
out most of their purchasing power. Instead of inheriting a fortune, Jorge received barely enough to buy a
midsized automobile. That his father had worked so long and so hard for so little saddened Jorge. If only
his father had understood a few simple facts: when the supply of money increases faster than the demand
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for it, prices rise and inflation ensues. When inflation increases, so too do nominal interest rates. And
when interest rates rise, the prices of bonds (and many other types of assets that pay fixed sums) fall.
Jorge’s father didn’t lack intelligence, and he wasn’t even atypical. Many people, even some otherwise
well-educated ones, do not understand the basics of money, banking, and finance. And they and their
loved ones pay for it, sometimes dearly.
Madison knows that all too well. Her grandparents didn’t understand the importance of portfolio
diversification (the tried-and-true rule that you shouldn’t put all of your eggs in one basket), so they
invested their entire life savings in a single company, Enron.
Security checks)
[5]
[4]
They lost everything (except their Social
after that bloated behemoth went bankrupt in December 2001. Instead of lavishing her
with gifts, Madison’s grandparents drained resources away from their granddaughter by constantly
seeking handouts from Madison’s parents. When the grandparents died—without life insurance, yet
another misstep—Madison’s parents had to pay big bucks for their “final expenses.”
[6]
Stop and Think Box
History textbooks often portray the American Revolution as a rebellion against unjust taxation, but the
colonists of British North America had other, more important grievances. For example, British imperial
policies set in London made it difficult for the colonists to control the supply of money or interest rates.
When money became scarce, as it often did, interest rates increased dramatically, which in turn caused
the value of colonists’ homes, farms, and other real estate to decrease quickly and steeply. As a
consequence, many lost their property in court proceedings and some even ended up in special debtors’
prisons. Why do history books fail to discuss this important monetary cause of the American Revolution?
Most historians, like many people, generally do not fully understand the principles of money and banking.
KEY TAKEAWAY
?
People who understand the principles of money and banking are more likely to lead happy, successful,
fulfilling lives than those who remain ignorant about them.
[1] www.amazon.com/Fast-Food-Nation-Eric-Schlosser/dp/0060838582/sr=81/qid=1168386508/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1/104-9795105-9365527?ie=UTF8&s=books
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[2]http://sinclair.thefreelibrary.com/Jungle;http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Sinclair/TheJungle/
[3] http://www.federalreserve.gov/
[4] www.riskglossary.com/link/enron.htm
[5] www.ssa.gov/
[6] www.fincalc.com/ins_03.asp?id=6
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1.2 Hope Springs
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
1.
How can knowledge of the principles of money and banking help you to achieve your dreams?
Of course, sometimes things go right, especially when one knows what one is doing. Henry
Kaufman, [1] who as a young Jewish boy fled Nazi persecution in the 1930s, is now a billionaire
because he understood what made interest rates (and as we’ll see, by extension, the prices of all sorts
of financial instruments) rise and fall. A little later, another immigrant from Central Europe, George
Soros, made a large fortune correctly predicting changes in exchange rates.[2] Millions of other
individuals have improved their lot in life (though most not as much as Kaufman and Soros!) by making
astute life decisions informed by knowledge of the economics of money and banking. Your instructor
and I cannot guarantee you riches and fame, but we can assure you that, if you read this book
carefully, attend class dutifully, and study hard, your life will be the better for it.
The study of money and banking can be a daunting one for students. Seemingly familiar terms here
take on new meanings. Derivatives refer not to calculus (though calculus helps to calculate their
value) but to financial instruments for trading risks. Interest is not necessarily interesting; stocks are
not alive nor are they holding places for criminals; zeroes can be quite valuable; CDs don’t contain
music; yield curves are sometimes straight lines; and the principal is a sum of money or an owner,
not the administrative head of a high school. In finance, unlike in retail or publishing, returns are a
good thing. Military-style acronyms and jargon also abound: 4X, A/I, Basel II, B.I.G., CAMELS, CRA,
DIDMCA, FIRREA, GDP, IMF, LIBOR, m, NASDAQ, NCD, NOW, OTS, r, SOX, TIPS, TRAPS, and on
and on. [3]
People who learn this strange new language and who learn to think like a banker (or other type of
financier) will be rewarded many times over in their personal lives, business careers, and civic
life. They will make better personal decisions, run their businesses or departments more efficiently, and
be better-informed citizens. Whether they seek to climb the corporate ladder or start their own
companies, they will discover that interest, inflation, and foreign exchange rates are as important to
success as are cell phones, computers, and soft people skills. And a few will find a career in banking
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to be lucrative and fulfilling. Some, eager for a challenging and rewarding career, will try to start
their own banks from scratch. And they will be able to do so, provided they are good enough to pass
muster with investors and with government regulators charged with keeping the financial system,
one of the most important sectors of the economy, safe and sound.
One last thing. This book is about Western financial systems, not Islamic ones. Islamic finance
performs the same functions as Western finance but tries to do so in a way that is sharia-compliant,
or, in other words, a way that accords with the teachings of the Quran and its modern interpreters,
who frown upon interest. To learn more about Islamic finance, which is currently growing and
developing very rapidly, you can refer to one of the books listed in Suggested Readings.
Stop and Think Box
Gaining regulatory approval for a new bank has become so treacherous that consulting firms specializing
in helping potential incorporators to navigate regulator-infested waters have arisen and some, like
Nubank,
[4]
have thrived. Why are regulations so stringent, especially for new banks? Why do people
bother to form new banks if it is so difficult?
Banking is such a complex and important part of the economy that the government cannot allow anyone
to do it. For similar reasons, it cannot allow just anyone to perform surgery or fly a commercial airliner.
People run the regulatory gauntlet because establishing a new bank can be extremely profitable and
exciting.
KEY TAKEAWAY
?
Not everyone will, or can, grow as wealthy as Henry Kaufman, George Soros, and other storied financiers,
but everyone can improve their lives by understanding the financial system and their roles in it.
[1] www.theglobalist.com/AuthorBiography.aspx?AuthorId=126
[2] www.georgesoros.com/
[3] www.acronym-guide.com/financial-acronyms.html;http://www.garlic.com/~lynn/fingloss.htm
[4] www.nubank.com/
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1.3 Suggested Browsing
Financial Literacy Foundation: http://www.finliteracy.org/
The FLF “is a nonprofit organization created to address the growing problem of financial illiteracy among
young consumers.” Similar organizations include the Community Foundation for Financial Literacy
(http://www.thecommunityfoundation-ffl.org) and the Institute for Financial Literacy
(http://www.financiallit.org/).
Museum of American Finance: http://www.moaf.org/index
In addition to its Web site and its stunning new physical space at the corner of William and Wall in
Manhattan’s financial district, the Museum of American Finance publishes a financial history magazine.
One of this book’s authors (Wright) sits on the editorial board.
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1.4 Suggested Reading
Ayub, Muhammed. Understanding Islamic Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2008.
El-Gamal, Mahmoud. Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2008.
Kaufman, Henry. On Money and Markets: A Wall Street Memoir. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.
Soros, George. Soros on Soros: Staying Ahead of the Curve. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 1995.
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Chapter 2
The Financial System
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
By the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
1.
Critique cultural stereotypes of financiers.
2.
Describe the financial system and the work that it performs.
3.
Define asymmetric information and sketch the problems that it causes.
4.
List the major types of financial markets and describe what distinguishes them.
5.
List the major types of financial instruments or securities and describe what distinguishes them.
6.
List the major types of intermediaries and describe what distinguishes them.
7.
Describe and explain the most important trade-offs facing investors.
8.
Describe and explain borrowers’ major concerns.
9.
Explain the functions of financial regulators.
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2.1 Evil and Brilliant Financiers?
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
1.
Are bankers, insurers, and other financiers innately good or evil?
Ever notice that movies and books tend to portray financiers as evil and powerful monsters, bent on
destroying all that decent folks hold dear for the sake of a fast buck? In his best-selling 1987
novel Bonfire of the Vanities, [1] for example, Tom Wolfe depicts Wall Street bond trader Sherman
McCoy (played by Tom Hanks in the movie version) [2] as a slimy “Master of the Universe”: rich,
powerful, and a complete butthead. Bashing finance is not a passing fad; you may recall the unsavory
Shylock character from Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice. [3] And who could forget Danny
DeVito [4] as the arrogant little donut-scarfing “Larry the Liquidator” juxtaposed against the adorable
old factory owner Andrew Jorgenson (played by Gregory Peck) [5] in Other People’s Money. [6] Even the
Christmas classic It’s a Wonderful Life [7] contains at best a dual message. In the film, viewers learn
that George Bailey, the lovable president of the local building and loan association (a type of
community bank) played by Jimmy Stewart, saved Bedford Falls from the clutches of a character
portrayed by Lionel Barrymore, actress Drew Barrymore’s grand-uncle, the ancient and evil financier
Henry F. Potter. (No relation to Harry, I’m sure.) That’s hardly a ringing endorsement of finance. [8]
Truth be told, some financiers have done bad things. Then again, so have members of every
occupational, geographical, racial, religious, and ethnic group on the planet. But most people, most of
the time, are pretty decent, so we should not malign entire groups for the misdeeds of a few, especially
when the group as a whole benefits others. Financiers and the financial systems they inhabit benefit
many people in wealthier countries. The financial system does so much good for the economy, in
fact, that some people believe that financiers are brilliant rocket scientists or at least “the smartest
guys in the room.” [9] This positive stereotype, however, is as flawed as the negative one. While some
investment bankers, insurance actuaries, and other fancy financiers could have worked for NASA,
they are far from infallible. The financial crisis that began in 2007 reminds us, once again, that
complex mathematical formulas are less useful in economics (and other social sciences) than in
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astrophysics. Financiers, like politicians, religious leaders, and, yes, college professors, have made
colossal mistakes in the past and will undoubtedly do so again in the future .
So rather than lean on stereotypes, this chapter will help you to form your own view of the financial
system. In the process, it will review the entire system. It’s well worth your time and effort to read this
chapter carefully because it contains a lot of descriptive information and definitions that will help you
later in the text.
KEY TAKEAWAYS
?
Financiers are not innately good or evil but rather, like other people, can be either, or can even be both
simultaneously.
?
While some financiers are brilliant, they are not infallible, and fancy math does not reality make.
?
Rather than follow prevalent stereotypes, students should form their own views of the financial system.
?
This important chapter will help students to do that, while also bringing them up to speed on key terms
and concepts that will be used throughout the book.
[1] www.amazon.com/Bonfire-Vanities-Tom-Wolfe/dp/0553275976
[2] www.imdb.com/title/tt0099165/
[3] http://www.bibliomania.com/0/6/3/1050/frameset.html
[4] www.imdb.com/name/nm0000362/
[5] www.imdb.com/name/nm0000060/
[6] www.imdb.com/title/tt0102609/
[7] www.nndb.com/films/309/000033210/
[8] video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4820768732160163488&pr=goog-sl
[9] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Smartest_Guys_in_the_Room
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2.2 Financial Systems
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
1.
What is a financial system and why do we need one?
A financial system is a densely interconnected network of financial intermediaries, facilitators, and
markets that serves three major purposes: allocating capital, sharing risks, and facilitating
intertemporal trade. That sounds mundane, even boring, but it isn’t once you understand how
important it is to human welfare. The material progress and technological breakthroughs of the last
two centuries, ranging from steam engines, cotton gins, and telegraphs, to automobiles, airplanes,
and telephones, to computers, DNA splicing, and cell phones, would not have been possible without
the financial system. Efficiently linking borrowers to lenders is the system’s main function.
Borrowers include inventors, entrepreneurs, and other economic agents, like domestic households,
governments, established businesses, and foreigners, with potentially profitable business ideas
(positive net present value projects) but limited financial resources (expenditures > revenues).
Lenders or savers include domestic households, businesses, governments, and foreigners with excess
funds (revenues > expenditures). The financial system also helps to link risk-averse entities called
hedgers to risk-loving ones known as speculators. As Figure 2.1 ““The financial system at work for
you”?” illustrates, you are probably already deeply imbedded in the financial system as both a
borrower and as a saver.
Figure 2.1 “The financial system at work for you”?
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Occasionally, people and companies, especially small businesses or ones that sell into rapidly
growing markets, have enough wealth (a stock) and income (a flow) to implement their ideas without
outside help by plowing back profits (aka internal finance). Most of the time, however, people and firms
with good ideas do not have the savings or cash needed to draw up blueprints, create prototypes, lease
office or production space, pay employees, obtain permits and licenses, or suffer the myriad risks of
bringing a new or improved good to market. Without savings, a rich uncle or close friend, or some
other form of external finance, people remain wannabe entrepreneurs and companies cannot
complete their projects. That should concern you because the world is a poorer place for it. [1]
Why do we need a financial system? Why can’t individuals and companies simply borrow from other
individuals and companies when they need to? Lending, like supplying many other types of goods, is
most efficiently and cheaply conducted by specialists, companies that do only one thing (or a couple of
related activities) very well because they have much practice doing it and because they tap economies of
scale. The fixed costs of making loans—advertising for borrowers, buying and maintaining
computers, leasing suitable office space, and the like—are fairly substantial. To recoup those fixed
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costs, to drive them toward insignificance, lenders have to do quite a volume of business. Little guys
usually just can’t be profitable. This is not to say, however, that bigger is always better, only that to be
efficient financial companies must exceed minimum efficient scale.
KEY TAKEAWAYS
?
The financial system is a dense network of interrelated markets and intermediaries that allocates capital
and shares risks by linking savers to spenders, investors to entrepreneurs, lenders to borrowers, and the
risk-averse to risk-takers.
?
It also increases gains from trade by providing payment services and facilitating intertemporal trade.
?
A financial system is necessary because few businesses can rely on internal finance alone.
?
Specialized financial firms that have achieved minimum efficient scale are better at connecting investors
to entrepreneurs than nonfinancial individuals and companies.
[1] www.innovation-america.org/archive.php?articleID=79
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2.3 Asymmetric Information: The Real Evil
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
1.
What is asymmetric information, what problems does it cause, and what can mitigate it?
Finance also suffers from a peculiar problem that is not easily overcome by just anybody . Undoubtedly,
you’ve already encountered the concept of opportunity costs, the nasty fact that to obtain X you must
give up Y, that you can’t have your cake and eat it too. You may not have heard of asymmetric
information, another nasty fact that makes life much more complicated. Likescarcity, asymmetric
information inheres in nature, the devil incarnate. That is but a slight exaggeration. When a seller
(borrower, a seller of securities) knows more than a buyer (lender or investor, a buyer of securities),
only trouble can result. Like the devil in Dante’s Inferno, [1] this devil has two big ugly
heads, adverse selection, which raises Cain before a contract is signed, and moral hazard, which
entails sinning after contract consummation. (Later, we’ll learn about a third head, the principalagency problem, a special type of moral hazard.)
Due to adverse selection, the fact that the riskiest borrowers are the ones who most strongly desire
loans, lenders attract sundry rogues, knaves, thieves, and ne’er-do-wells, like pollen-laden flowers
attract bees (Natty Light [2] attracts frat boys?). If they are unaware of that selection bias, lenders will
find themselves burned so often that they will prefer to keep their savings under their mattresses rather
than risk lending it. Unless recognized and effectively countered, moral hazard will lead to the same
suboptimal outcome. After a loan has been made, even good borrowers sometimes turn into thieves
because they realize that they can gamble with other people’s money. So instead of setting up a nice
little ice cream shop with the loan as they promised, a disturbing number decide instead to try to get
rich quick by taking a quick trip to Vegas or Atlantic City [3] for some potentially lucrative fun at the
blackjack table. If they lose, they think it is no biggie because it wasn’t their money.
One of the major functions of the financial system is to tangle with those devilish information
asymmetries. It never kills asymmetry, but it usually reduces its influence enough to let businesses
and other borrowers obtain funds cheaply enough to allow them to grow, become more efficient,
innovate, invent, and expand into new markets. By providing relatively inexpensive forms of external
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finance, financial systems make it possible for entrepreneurs and other firms to test their ideas in the
marketplace. They do so by eliminating, or at least reducing, two major constraints
on liquidity and capital, or the need for short-term cash and long-term dedicated funds. They reduce
those constraints in two major ways: directly (though often with the aid of facilitators) viamarkets and
indirectly via intermediaries. Another way to think about that is to realize that the financial system
makes it easy to trade intertemporally, or across time. Instead of immediately paying for supplies
with cash, companies can use the financial system to acquire what they need today and pay for it
tomorrow, next week, next month, or next year, giving them time to produce and distribute their
products.
Stop and Think Box
You might think that you would never stoop so low as to take advantage of a lender or insurer. That may
be true, but financial institutions are not worried about you per se; they are worried about the typical
reaction to asymmetric information. Besides, you may not be as pristine as you think. Have you ever done
any of the following?
?
Stolen anything from work?
?
Taken a longer break than allowed?
?
Deliberately slowed down at work?
?
Cheated on a paper or exam?
?
Lied to a friend or parent?

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