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LAST CLASS DECEMBER 14, 2022
PLEASE NAME YOUR FILES starting with
your last name_#Draft_Research
Examples: Dalton_Final Draft_Research
Dalton_2nd Draft_ShortEssay
Dalton_Reflection
Submission of final portfolio including: 1. Final draft of three page essay (on
Silko or Tagaq); 2. Final draft of 6-8 page research essay, MLA formatted
with Works Cited page and in-text citations, using five sources total/three of
which are academic sources 3. Reflection statement: Describe your writing
and research processes this semester. How did you come up with a research
topic? What do you find challenging about writing in general?
1. Show your work; demonstrate that what you’ve written represents your
own thought process. Include notes if you have them, an informal research
log or description of your research process. There are too many shortcuts out
there, so don’t make me suspicious.
The Long-Term Effects of War on Refugees
Rishi Patel
Long Island University
Course: ENG 16
Instructor: Elizabeth Dalton
The Long-Term Effects of War on Refugees
The effects of war on refugees are both long-term and short-term. In the long term, refugees
are often left with physical and emotional scars that can take years to heal. In the short term,
refugees often have to flee their homes and face danger on the journey to safety. The effects are
complex and multi-layered and include physical health problems, such as malnutrition and
exposure to violence or diseases; psychological health problems, such as post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) and anxiety; social and economic difficulties, such as loss of income, inability to
find a job, and difficulty integrating into new communities; and physical and emotional trauma.
UNHCR provides protection, assistance, and integration services to refugees in over 190 countries.
In 2017, UNHCR safeguarded more than 65 million displaced people by conflict and violence.
The effects of war on refugees can be mitigated through several measures, including providing
protection and assistance, promoting their rights and dignity; providing education, health care, and
economic opportunities; facilitating their integration into the host community; and engaging them
in peace-building processes. This paper aims to explore the long-term effects of war on refugees.
Physical Health Challenges Faced by Refugee Children
It is well known that war has a devastating effect on the physical health of the refugees.
Some of the physical health effects include increased rates of injury and death. Refugees are
particularly vulnerable to war’s physical health effects, as they have been forced to flee their homes
and often experience significant trauma (Lloyd & Sirkeci, 2022). The impact of war on refugee
families and children can be significant and long-lasting. Families may be displaced, lose loved
ones, and experience physical and psychological injuries. Children may suffer from physical and
psychological trauma, as well as deprivation. Refugees may also risk becoming refugees again if
they cannot return home or if their home is unsafe (Lloyd & Sirkeci, 2022). A significant impact
of war on families and children is the loss of security and stability. Displacement can lead to
insecurity and unpredictability, which can be extremely challenging for families. Children may
also be forced to leave their homes and experience trauma in new surroundings (Marbach et al.,
2018). As a result, they may have difficulty integrating into society and developing healthy
relationships. In addition, displaced children may experience difficulties in school, as they may
miss essential classes and experiences (Lloyd & Sirkeci, 2022). The impact of war on families and
children is significant, long-lasting, and can have a wide range of effects. Understanding the effects
of war on families and children is essential to develop strategies to support them.
In addition to the apparent effects of displacement and violence, refugees often have
difficulty accessing formal and informal education. For example, refugee status can be a barrier to
accessing education and learning opportunities; the lack of infrastructure in refugee-hosting
countries often makes it difficult for refugees to access education, and refugee children frequently
face discrimination in school, which can lead to them dropping out. The educational effects of war
on refugees are far-reaching and damaging (Lloyd & Sirkeci, 2022). To address these effects,
governments and NGOs should work together to provide refugees access to education and learning
opportunities. It will not only help refugees succeed in their new lives, but it will also help to build
a more robust and more secure world.
War often leads to the widespread destruction of infrastructure and loss of livelihoods,
leaving people without the means to support themselves. Refugees are often among the most
vulnerable members of society and can find it challenging to access essential services and
resources. War can cause social and psychological trauma, leading to depression, anxiety, and
post-traumatic stress disorder (Comtesse et al., 2019). Refugees are often the target of
discrimination and hostility, making it difficult to find a place to live and find employment. It can
lead to hopelessness, despair, guilt, and loss. All of these effects can have a profound impact on
refugees’ mental health and well-being. The physical effects of war – such as injuries, malnutrition,
and stress- can also majorly impact refugees’ health.
Mental Health Challenges Faced by Refugee Children
According to the UN refugee agency, over half of all refugees are children. There are
millions of refugee children around the world who have experienced war, violence, and
displacement. Many of these children are seeking safety and a better life. Many refugee children
also face mental health challenges ((Marbach et al., 2018). These include anxiety, depression, and
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Often, these problems arise because refugees have
experienced traumatic events – such as violence or the loss of loved ones – in their home countries
(Marbach et al., 2018). Refugee children also face social isolation. They may not have friends or
family members in their new community and feel like they do not belong (Kaufman et al., 2022).
It makes them feel scared and lonely. Some refugee children also experience mental health
challenges. For example, they may be feeling homesick or scared. They might also have problems
with anger or anxiety.
These challenges are usually addressed when the children are resettled in a safer, more
affluent country. In such a setting, they will have access to education and support systems to help
them adjust to their new environment. Refugees also receive support from the government and
non-profit organizations, which can make a significant difference in their lives ((Marbach et al.,
2018). While refugee children face additional challenges when they arrive in a new country, these
challenges are usually overcome when resettled. It is due to the support system that is available to
them and their willingness to adapt to their new surroundings (Marbach et al., 2018). In more
affluent countries, many of these challenges are also addressed. For example, refugee children may
attend special schools designed to help them learn the language and customs of their new country
(Marbach et al., 2018). Additionally, they may be given financial assistance to help them with their
resettlement costs. The challenges faced by refugee children are often overcome when resettled in
a more prosperous country. However, the needs of refugee children are always addressed in a way
that is suited to their individual needs.
The Role of Religion in Refugee Communities
Religion plays a vital role in refugee communities. It provides a sense of community and
belonging and helps people to cope with difficult circumstances. It can also provide support and
encouragement during the initial stages of resettlement (Comtesse et al., 2019). There is often
much overlap between religious beliefs and customs in refugee communities and those of their
original home country (Comtesse et al., 2019). It can lead to tensions if different groups of refugees
clash over religious practices. Refugees face several challenges when finding places to worship,
as many churches and mosques have closed down due to the ongoing conflict in Syria and other
countries (Batalla & Tolay, 2018). There is a need for religious services to be available to refugees,
not just during the initial stages of resettlement but long after they have settled in their new country.
Religious leaders can play an essential role in helping refugees rebuild their lives and promoting
understanding and cohesion in the community (Comtesse et al., 2019). Religious education can
also promote tolerance and respect for other faiths. Religion can significantly rehabilitate refugees,
helping them rebuild their lives and regain their sense of self-worth. It can also help to reduce
feelings of isolation and loneliness.
The Role of Transitional Justice in Addressing the Long-Term Effects of War on
Refugees
The past two decades have seen a dramatic increase in refugees and internally displaced
persons (IDPs) worldwide. In the early 1990s, an estimated 16 million refugees and IDPs were
mainly from Africa (Batalla & Tolay, 2018). Today, that number is over 65 million. As the world
faces an unprecedented refugee crisis, it is essential to consider how transitional justice can be
used to help address the needs of refugees and IDPs. Transitional justice is a process that aims to
achieve justice for victims of human rights abuses, including refugees and IDPs. It provides a way
for these victims to have their voices heard, receive reparations, and learn from the crimes
committed against them (Batalla & Tolay, 2018). Transitional justice can be used to address
different issues related to refugees and IDPs. For example, transitional justice can help to rebuild
trust between refugees and host communities, ensure that victims receive justice and reparations,
and provide education about human rights abuses so that these crimes will not be repeated (Batalla
& Tolay, 2018). There are many ways that transitional justice can be used to address the needs of
refugees and IDPs. To best serve these populations, it is essential for those working on their behalf
to have a clear understanding of transitional justice concepts and how they can be applied to the
refugee and IDP crisis.
Addressing the Physical and Mental Health Effects of War
There are several ways that refugee communities can address the physical and mental
health effects of war. First, refugees can access medical care and trauma counseling to help them
recover from their experiences (Batalla & Tolay, 2018). Second, refugee communities can
organize social support networks to provide emotional and practical assistance to members
(Buhmann et al., 2018). Third, refugees can engage in advocacy and activism to raise awareness
of war’s physical and mental health effects and encourage governments to take action to address
them. In light of war’s physical and mental health effects on refugees, ensuring they have access
to the resources they need to recover and rebuild their lives (Buhmann et al., 2018). It can be done
through trauma counseling, social support networks, and medical care. Additionally, advocacy and
activism can help raise awareness of the effects of war on refugees and pressure governments to
address them. Together, these efforts can help refugees regain their physical and mental health and
build a brighter future.
Conclusion
War has had a profound impact on the refugees. Many of the refugees have lost their homes
and all their belongings. They have had to leave their families and friends behind and start new
lives in a new place. They face many challenges, such as finding a job and settling into their new
home. The long-term effects are both physical and mental. The physical health challenges include
malnutrition, disease, and exposure to violence, while mental health challenges include posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. The role of religion in refugee communities is
essential both in terms of helping to support refugees during difficult times and in providing a
sense of community. Also, transitional justice plays a significant role in addressing the long-term
effects of war on refugees by ensuring that refugees are given the opportunity to rebuild their lives
and reintegrate into society.
References
Batalla, L., & Tolay, J. (2018). Toward long-term solidarity with Syrian refugees? Turkey’s policy
response and challenges.
Buhmann, C. B., Nordentoft, M., Ekstroem, M., Carlsson, J., & Mortensen, E. L. (2018). Longterm treatment effect of trauma-affected refugees with flexible cognitive behavioural
therapy and antidepressants. Psychiatry Research, 264, 217-223.
Comtesse, H., Powell, S., Soldo, A., Hagl, M., & Rosner, R. (2019). Long-term psychological
distress of Bosnian war survivors: an 11-year follow-up of former displaced persons,
returnees, and stayers. BMC psychiatry, 19(1), 1-10.
Lloyd, A. T., & Sirkeci, I. (2022). A Long-Term View of Refugee Flows from Ukraine: War,
Insecurities, and Migration. Migration Letters, 19(4), 523-535.
Marbach, M., Hainmueller, J., & Hangartner, D. (2018). The long-term impact of employment
bans on the economic integration of refugees. Science advances, 4(9), eaap9519.
Surname 1
Rishi Patel
ENG 16
Surname 2
In the Combat Zone, Leslie Marmon Silko
I concur with Leslie Marmon that women’s exposure to stranger threats is an underrated
area of focus. There is an inherent societal ideology that women are vulnerable and require a
buttress from an outside environment for strength and security. Unfortunately, this notion has
rendered them vulnerable and easy targets for attacks from malicious men. Besides, most women
grow up powerless and unable to defend themselves in case of incidents that require self-defense.
Leslie’s story emphasizes women’s susceptibility to stranger attacks and advocates for personal
security initiatives such as courage, gun ownership, and weaponry expertise. I acknowledge the
women’s vulnerability to strangers and also advocate for the gun ownership recommendation, but
I differ with the kind of courage Leslie is proposing.
Women’s Vulnerability
It is indisputable that women are more likely to fall victim to strangers. The criminal
victimization conceptual framework indicates that the four fundamental elements of crime
perpetration entail an offender, a target, third parties, and the environment that facilitates the
criminal act (Kenny 2). Furthermore, the framework indicates that crime is an organized activity
that the offenders perceive before undertaking. Kenny postulates that criminals do not assault
their victims randomly but operate on a well-formulated plan (2). In Leslie’s case, darkness and
solitude are the situational facilitators of the women’s attack. She argues that women remain
constantly conscious of their environment due to the dread of attack and violation compared to
men (Silko, 1). The women’s vulnerability exposes them to malicious men who purposely hunt
them in their vulnerable moments, such as when walking alone in the dark or isolated regions,
driving on less congested highways, or residing alone in their apartments. This targeting arises
from the societally imposed weakness, making men more inclined to attack them. Kenny (55)
Surname 3
argues that attackers are more attracted to socially vulnerable people. This argument is evident in
Leslie’s life experiences whereby she encountered men in lonely places exposing her to danger.
For instance, when she bumped into White deer hunters while racing, she was at risk of being
shot. Also, when she encountered a tracker along the highway, she faced an uncertain outcome
depending on the intention of the man who eventually sped away.
These experiences are quintessential to the daily challenges that women go through in
their lives. They are not at peace in lonely or dark places as they are always a potential target for
a male predator. UN Women attests to this threat by arguing that young girls face sexual
harassment threats (UN Women). Sexual manipulation through rape is one of the rampant vices
that befall women from the attacks. They also experience emotional distress; others get hunted
by serial killers who manipulate them sexually and physically and eventually murder them. Su
and Wu (5) argue that there is a proliferation of stranger violence against women, but the
authorities continue to downplay the magnitude of its impacts on the women victims. Hence,
there is a need for a remedy to salvage the plight of women.
Gun Ownership and Use Mastery
Gun ownership and knowing how to operate them is one of the effective ways that
women can protect themselves from stranger attacks. The vulnerability explication shows that
women will continue facing manipulation and harassment from male strangers who single them
out due to societal-imposed weakness. Some of these attackers are aggressive and hostile and
hold evil agendas, like serial killers requiring weapons like guns for the ladies to defend
themselves when attacked. However, there have been contentions about women owning guns for
protection, with opposing arguments that term it as a dangerous move that can fuel more
violence. According to Harvard T.H. CHAN, women should use alternative methods such as
Surname 4
sprays and adopt cautionary measures. There are also claims that heightened security can
mitigate the problem. Further, other groups posit that increased gun ownership can escalate
crime rates. These are biases against women and a way of stifling them further.
Leslie argues that the police cannot monitor every women’s movement, and some are also
perpetrators of crimes against women (Silko, 5). It is also ironic to suggest subtle ways of
combating violent people. The women need to acquaint themselves with gun utilization
techniques to be well-positioned to counter aggressive attackers. In the US, activists are pushing
to repeal the second amendment to allow the utilization of guns for self-defense outside the
homes. According to the moot, licensed h=gun-holders are less likely to misuse the weapons for
criminal activities (Lott 5). The Independent Women’s Law Center, which was also enjoined in
the case, argues that the civil authorities offer limited protection to women who are vulnerable to
attacks, hence the need for exclusive gun use for self-protection (US Supreme Court 13).
Confidence Counter-Argument
However, I can’t entirely agree with Leslie that people should face danger confidently, as
she did when summoned by the tracker on the highway. I believe that when allowed to flee
danger, women should escape avoiding unnecessary confrontations that can lead to dangerous
outcomes. Kenny (7) recommends that people evade risky situations and stay intuitive to avoid
becoming attack victims. The guns are only applicable in untimely attacks that one could not
anticipate.
Conclusion
Guns can effectively mitigate the stranger attacks on women, which have become
rampant and likely to persist. In addition, owning a firearm will instill confidence in women and
minimize the constant fear of men’s predatory behavior. Research confirms that the primary aim
Surname 5
of women’s desire to own guns is sorely for protective purposes. Coupled with vigilance, it will
create a powerful defense system for women.
Surname 6
Works Cited
Harvard T.H. CHAN. “Should Women Runners Carry Guns for Self-Defense?” News, 2022,
https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/hsph-in-the-news/should-women-runners-carryguns-for-self-defense/
Kenny, James F. “Hiding In Plain Sight.” 2020. Springer International Publishing,
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-26867-1. Accessed October 11, 2022.
Lott, John R. “Crime Prevention Research Center Amicus Brief On New York State Rifle &
Pistol Association V. Bruen.” Bruen (July 15, 2021) (2021).
Su, Chiu-Ping, and Tsung-Chiung Wu. “The Dark Side of Solo Female Travel: Negative
Encounters with Male Strangers.” Leisure Sciences, vol 42, no. 3-4, 2020, pp. 375392. Informa UK Limited. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2020.1712277. Accessed
October 11, 2022
UN Women. “Creating Safe and Empowering Public Spaces for Women and Girls.” UN Women
– Headquarters, 2022, https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violenceagainst-women/creating-safe-public-spaces.
US Supreme Court. “New York State Rifle & Pistol Association Inc., Et Al., V. Kevin P. Bruen,
In His Official Capacity as Superintendent Of New York State Police, Et Al., Brief for
The Independent Women’s Law Center as Amicus Curiae Supporting Petitioners. No. 20843, 2021, P. Interest of The Amicus Curiae.”. Supremecourt.Gov, 2021,
https://www.supremecourt.gov/DocketPDF/20/20843/184501/20210721131443123_IWLC%20Amicus%20Brief.pdf
ENG 16 – 006
English Composition
Fall 2022
Monday/Wednesday 12:00pm-1:15pm
Humanities Building: Room 604
Professor Elizabeth Dalton
Email: E.H.Daltonvt@gmail.com
Office: H 431
Department Phone: 718-488-1050
Office Hours: Mon/Wed 1:30pm-3:00pm
Course Description:
Philosophy & Goals
English 16 is our first-year composition course. This is a writing-intensive course that fulfills three credits
towards LIU Brooklyn’s writing-intensive requirement. For graduation, all students are required to take
nine credits of writing-intensive courses. For students who place into English 16, it is their only required
composition course; for those who place into 14, it is their second course in the sequence. English 16
seeks to help students become critical readers and writers as they deepen their practice and knowledge
of academic discourse through expository, analytical, argumentative, and research writing, and through
intensive engagement with critical and creative texts. Students focus their writing on critical inquiry in
preparation for sophomore and upper level courses across the disciplines. By the end of the semester,
they should be able to write a critical, thesis-driven essay with MLA-style documentation that utilizes a
range of rhetorical strategies and a minimum of four sources.
Students learn/review invention strategies, such as free writing, clustering, process writing, and informal
writing; rhetorical strategies such as comparison and contrast, cause-and-effect analysis, and
recognition of logical fallacies; and grammar and punctuation, including greater attention to style, in
relation to their writing assignments. They present their writing in a full class workshop on a regular
basis.
All essays should go through a process of drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading. Twice in the
semester, students submit a portfolio of their work that includes at the midterm one response paper, a
research proposal, and reflective/self-evaluative writing on the proposal; and at the end of the term, an
in-class essay, the research essay, and reflective/self-evaluative writing on the research essay.
The primary goal of English 16 is to help students become critical readers and writers to prepare them
for academic and workplace success. By critically analyzing broad, cross-disciplinary themes such as
gentrification, students are able to reflect on their own experiences in light of literature, social criticism,
and cultural analysis to enter into the “conversation” at the heart of academic discourse.
Learning Outcomes:
1
Reading: By the end of English 16, students should be fluent, critical readers of academic and literary
genres, with strategies for researching and learning new concepts as well as appropriating other
discipline-specific discourses. On the continuum from English 13/13X to Core Seminar, English 16C
students should be able to:
•
•
•
•
re-read and mark a text to develop an interpretation with an emphasis on critical analysis;
identify several genres, including fiction and various kinds of nonfiction, such as analytical,
argumentative, and informative essays;
use increasingly sophisticated texts both as source material and writing models;
select appropriate information sources such as databases, and evaluate primary and secondary
sources for their credibility and usefulness.
Writing: By the end of English 16, students should be able to write college-level, clear, reasonably
correct, critical-analytical essays, and use writing as a tool for thinking and learning. On the continuum
from English 13/13X to Core Seminar, English 16/16X students should be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
demonstrate knowledge of rhetoric—purpose, audience, context, and voice—across several
genres;
use writing for expression, inquiry, analysis, argumentation, research, and communication;
demonstrate an understanding of writing as a multi-step process involving invention, drafting,
revising, collaborating, editing, and proofreading;
apply research skills to the development of a thesis, and integrate primary and secondary
sources into an analysis or argument;
apply appropriate formatting conventions and standard English usage;
understand and take advantage of the differences between print and electronic composing
processes.
All the above goals will be adapted with sensitivity toward students whose first language is not English.
Prerequisites:
Students either place into English 16 or complete English 14.
Course Credits:
3 hrs.
Required Texts:
PDFs or links to all reading assignments provided by instructor and available on Blackboard.
Other Required Materials:
? Library Bar Code: Each student will need a LIU library bar code for this class. To get your
bar code, go ASAP to the Circulation Desk on the 5th floor of the Library Learning Center
(LLC) Building.
? A folder to keep all of your work for the semester—save ALL hard copies and electronic
2
files. Save all drafts with my comments, your notes, and peer response. In other words:
Save everything!
Core Curriculum Goals:
The LIU Brooklyn Core Curriculum introduces students to a broad liberal arts education, enables advanced
academic and professional achievement, and fosters lifelong learning. The core initiates students into a process
of ongoing development of oral and written communication, technological, and research skills. It instills habits
of mind—such as intellectual curiosity, discipline, and persistence—that enable integrative, creative, historical,
scientific, and reflective thinking. These habits of mind, in turn, provoke critical questions about the natural,
physical, and social world and the crucial issues confronting global societies in the 21st century. As a whole,
the core encourages intellectual and personal growth in and out of the classroom by

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