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Sample 1:
Chemotherapy treatment often associates with a myriad of side effects, including iron
deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is a disorder indicated by a lack of healthy red blood
cells due to iron shortages. Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy is a standard of care, but
financially burdensome with limited effectiveness. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to
determine whether moderate-intensity walking is effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced
iron deficiency anemia in cervical cancer patients. A ten-month randomized control experimental
study will be conducted using 124 cervical cancer patients recruited from Rhode Island, age 65
to 75 years. Participants will be randomly assigned to the moderate-intensity walking
intervention group or the sedentary control group while receiving six months of chemotherapy.
All participants will have complete red blood cell count, serum iron and serum ferritin levels
tested at baseline and then monthly after the initial visit. It is predicted that complete red blood
cell count, serum iron, and serum ferritin levels of the intervention group will increase or remain
stabilized. This study may provide evidence to support an economically friendly intervention that
may effectively alleviate or eliminate the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced iron deficiency
anemia in cervical cancer patients that are undergoing chemotherapy.
Sample 2:
Alzheimer’s disease is a debilitating neurological disease that is the sixth leading cause of
death in individuals over the age of 65. There is no cure for late-onset Alzheimer’s and research
regarding non-pharmaceutical management/prevention interventions is scarce. The purpose of
this study is to determine if the Mediterranean diet is effective in Alzheimer’s disease prevention
in a within subjects with a pre-test and post-test experimental, longitudinal randomized control
trial. Sample size will consist of 2,400 participants via quota sampling, recruiting 400
participants ages 40 to 60 from each New England state. Subjects will be randomized into four
groups, each containing 600 participants. All groups will have varying procedural durations
(ranging from four to seven years) and expected adherence levels to the Mediterranean diet
(ranging from intermediate to full compliance). All participants will have a baseline data
obtained and annual neurological examinations throughout the study’s duration and will be
followed up ten years after post-trial completion to assess occurrences of Alzheimer’s diagnoses.
Finding an effective non-pharmaceutical management/prevention option for Alzheimer’s disease
may decrease the number of Alzheimer’s associated deaths, healthcare spending, and overall
diagnosis frequencies in the general aging population.
Sample 3:
Over the last decade there has been an increase in the number of half marathon
participants, many of whom suffer from hitting the wall. The majority of these individuals,
however, sign up for future races in hopes of breaking new personal records. Studies have
associated strength, endurance training and dynamic stretching with improved running economy,
but the comparison to pace time has not yet been made. This study will examine the combined
effects of dynamic stretching and strength training on pace time of long-distance runners who
perform these while endurance training. A 12-week pre-test post-test experiment consisting of 39
females and 39 males aged 20-29 were pooled from the most recent Hartford Half Marathon and
randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: running only, weight training + running,
or weight training, running and stretching. Because stretching is associated with improved
running performance and strength training is correlated with increased RE, it is expected that the
greatest improvement in pace times will be found in runners of the R+S+D group. This study
will provide information to long distance runners on how to improve pace time in an appropriate
fashion, while reducing the risks of over-exertion from improper training.
Introduction
The prevalence of social media use in the past decade is associated with various
psychological well-being variables. Statistics from Pew Research Center, (2020) reveal that
96% of teenagers aged between 12 and 17 years old own or have access to a smartphone. The
reports indicate that 85% of these populations use Instagram while 49% use Snapchat. Various
studies suggest that access to social media negatively affects body image perceptions,
especially in young women (Taylor-Jackson & Moustafa, 2021; Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016).
Exposure to social media content subconsciously defines and sets standards of beauty for the
users and effectively causes a user to compare themselves with influencers and other users of
social media. A study in the UK found that about 90% of women compared themselves to
women on social media, and 45% were reported to get depressed due to maladaptive body
comparison (Statista, 2019). In that regard, this study aims to establish that the deep
comparison of physical appearance among young women has psychological consequences on
the woman’s body image. More importantly, it investigates the interventions for healthy
communication and behavior change that would effectively address maladaptive body
comparison in young women. The research will be divided into age, geographic distribution,
and gender of the most vulnerable population in relation to social media and body image
contexts.
“Body Image” is a concept that has varied definitions in the literature. In this research,
body image refers to an individual’s reflection of body appearance. Body image entails body
dissatisfaction, self -objectification, and a drive for masculinity or even for thinness (Hawi &
Samaha, 2017). Social media is an online interactive platform where people from diverse
backgrounds, appearances, and different gender interact (Taylor-Jackson & Moustafa, 2021).
Various social media platforms include Pinterest, Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, and Tik Tok.
Reports by statistics in 2019 estimated that more than 46 million people aged between 12 and
24 years had active Snapchat accounts. Followed by 20 million Instagram and 2.6 million
Facebook users (Statista, 2019). These social media platforms have specific features that
allow the instantaneous sharing of personalized images and short videos. Thus, more and
more people are prompted to interact on these social media platforms to view or share short
videos and photos. The photos and short videos shared on these platforms can inherently set
appearance standards, leading social media users to engage in a maladaptive body comparison
process.
The issue of social media and body image is salient among young women. Social media
portrays less curvy, tall, thin women as ideal. Even though this physique is unrealistic to
achieve, most individuals pursue it at the expense of healthy eating leading to eating disorders
in women. The women’s most affected age group is those between thirteen and twenty-four
years old (Taylor-Jackson & Moustafa, 2021). Men are also affected by social media as the
ideal body type is to be muscular and strong. Thus, the vulnerable population is people who
are not proud of their appearances. The most affected population are those influenced by
western cultures. The most affected demographics are female and male students in high school
or those in undergraduate programs (Taylor-Jackson & Moustafa, 2021).
According to Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016), UK hospital admission cases caused by
eating disorders have doubled from 8000 in 2012. This UK-based report coincides with an
analysis of eating disorders between 2000 and 2006 in the USA (Saiphoo & Vahedi, 2019).
The data showed an exponential increment in eating disorders by 18% (Saiphoo & Vahedi,
2019). Interestingly, these reports overlap with the emergence of social media in 2000. The
problems of body image lead to low self-esteem and may cause depression. A study showed a
high correlation between social media use and increased feelings of loneliness, isolation,
degraded self-concept, and anxiety ( Farrell & Sood, 2020). As the mental issues related to
social media and body image continue to increase, several psychologists have recommended
the need to disconnect from social media and have a positive mindset when reflecting on one’s
body. However, these interventions cannot address the undermining issue that causes people
to compare themselves with strangers on social media.
In an overview of Social Media and Body Image Concerns conducted by Fardouly and
Vartanian (2016), correlational studies revealed an association between social media use and
boy image in both men and women. This association was expected to strengthen over time, as
established by longitudinal studies. However, experimental evidence revealed that exposure to
one personal Facebook did not negatively affect a young woman’s perceptions of appearance.
The research does not, however, provide the aspects of social media that are influential on
people’s body image. In another study, Hawi & Samaha (2016) investigated the relationships
between social media addiction and self-esteem and life satisfaction among university
students. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale and satisfaction life scale were used alongside
questionnaires to collect data through the online survey. Pearson correlation and regression
were also used to analyze data. The data revealed a negative relationship between social
media addiction and self-esteem, mediating life dissatisfaction. Even though the study
establishes a concrete connection between social media use and negative self-esteem, it does
not investigate therapeutic or preventive strategies to address the problem.
Social media use in the last decade has increased concern about psychological
well-being. Exposure to social media content subconsciously affects how a person defines
beauty. Consequently, social media content affects our perception of body image. Body image
concerns lead to an eating disorder, low self-esteem, and depression. Existing research has
established how the impact of social media affects individuals’ body image across age and
gender and how the problem of body image is related to psychological issues of low
self-esteem and depression. However, there is no knowledge of social media aspects that
influence body image. Also, no preventive strategies have been put forth to protect the effect of
social media on body image. The current study aims at understanding aspects of social media
that influence body image and approach interventions for healthy communication and behavior
change.
Literature Review
The emphasis on appearance and body type has not just begun. It has been around for a
long time in all of our communities. It is possible to say that the history of beauty and body form
dates back a very long period. Research has since been done to examine the cultural and social
elements that influence the development of an ideal body image. According to the study’s
findings, western civilization significantly contributed to developing a slender ideal body image.
Social media and other forms of media, such as mass media, promote this ideal body image. The
transmission of the thin-ideal body image can be linked to websites, television shows, and
fashion and beauty publications. This essay investigates how social media affects how people
perceive the ideal body image, particularly among women.
Recent changes in social media have had a significant influence on the 21st century.
Social media makes people feel less confident in themselves and how others see them (Kleemans
et al., 2018). Web-based media has negatively affected society, making people feel that they are
not attractive enough, especially young women and girls. However, many campaigns have been
launched via online media to dispel the notion that people must modify their appearance to fit in
and be seen as attractive. The researchers discovered a link between media use and ideal body
image development. Additionally, a poll of college-aged women was conducted to gather data,
and it was discovered that social media motivates one to modify their physique. The researchers
discovered weak associations between these variables.
The precise effects of social media have recently been the subject of several studies and
analyses by scholars. Most studies on the impact of social media on the development of an ideal
body image have focused on how little young girls and women are affected by the use of online
media and the objectives it sets. People can also explore their self-perception through online
platforms by making cruel and disrespectful comments about those who upload their images.
People who use social media for good frequently explain how online media inhibits
self-perception and forces people to reconsider their beauty: The internet has created a sense of
secrecy where people believe it is OK to make comments about the appearance of others. By
posting the images online so that anybody may view them for themselves, it appears as though
the words are harmless and that they were requested. Analysts frequently see a social comparison
among users of internet media, which can make people feel as though they are not good enough
in their own eyes. Researchers conclude that the comparison between social image and
physicality alludes to psychological assessments that people make about their credentials
compared to others. Young women and women frequently visit wellness sites on social media,
that include images of women of every size who are thought to have “beautiful bodies,” which
they get by exercising and eating less (Burnette, Kwitowski, & Mazzeo, 2017). Even when they
occasionally practice appropriate tendencies, it is only when the camera is pointed in their
direction that their body seems more attractive and gorgeous.
Naturally, girls and women want to look their best. However, they usually approach this
goal incorrectly by making nutritional mistakes and considering less healthy, quicker ways to
lose weight. Social media users explain in detail how web-based media may affect people’s
beliefs about the ideal self-perception; kids need to look for variation while using online media.
Chronic phases must demonstrate your preferences, and once they have thought about what you
would desire, they typically carry on as normal to satisfy you. They decide which offers or pages
to propose to you, depending on your preferences. Let us say someone loves and comments on
the sites of people with conventional tastes. In that situation, you will only be shown comparable
pages that support your “standard” and never with images or thoughts that go against it. Due to
gender stereotypes and the role that sexual orientation plays, young women and women tend to
assume that outer beauty takes precedence over internal qualities. With this common societal
misunderstanding, more young women and women can adapt to the generalization of genuine
interest. With the increased use of online media, the stereotypes have only gotten worse, leaving
younger girls and children wondering if they are good enough for society.
With the growth of social media, it has become more difficult to ignore the various
celebrities who constantly publish stunning photos showcasing what is unquestionably the ideal
physique and flawless faces. Scientists explain how women who browse online media feel that
other women who post are better than they are because the images in online media postings are
the most distinctive and alluring. These pictures are updated often and do not always represent
how the person will look. Little girls and women are left with uneasy feelings about themselves
when they view images on web media, especially those that hotshot their real credits (Mills et al.,
2018). This demonstrates how social media may lead to both mental and nutritional problems,
which may discourage women and erode their self-confidence. Many young women and ladies
are being influenced by factors like TV and movies, models, and celebrity endorsements to
admire new body images. When you consider that young people are used in adult advertisements
without the “problem” of muscle vs. fat or wrinkles and that bodies are artificially glamorized,
you can see how difficult it is for your child to maintain a positive self-perception. One wonders
how we might address this troubling issue because of the huge impact that superstars and internet
media have on how young women view their bodies. The use of all these elements in social
media impacts young women and women whose bodies they adore to be sculpted in the same
way.
The study found that some young women and girls affected by body photos on social
media go to plastic surgeons to have their bodies molded into the perfect shape they desire. As a
result, these plastic surgeons have significantly impacted how women view their bodies.
Recently, plastic surgeons have shown off how they alter bodies by clamping off fat and carving
genuine ascribes on websites like Snapchat and Instagram (Ryding & Kuss, 2020). These experts
spread the false notion that you can buy the physique you want through social media. While
plastic surgery can be useful in extreme instances, many women currently have the operation
done when all they need is a change in their way of life. The paper “Web-based Media and the
Plastic Surgery Patient” discusses how plastic surgeons are starting to videotape their medical
operations and post them on social media platforms like Facebook or Twitter. While using
internet media as a teaching tool, these professionals also use it as a marketing strategy to inform
the general public about their medical treatments. However, using online platforms to promote
their practice as plastic surgeons may harm young women. Body-upgrading medical operations
are the ones that are typically performed on video and posted to social media. Ladies are curious
as to what their bodies would seem like if they visited the professionals they see in the media.
Twenty-five percent were highly interested in seeing when images were shown for the top three
materials on a plastic specialist’s website, while fifty-five percent were curious. The study of
what people are required to see is how experts alter bodies by removing fat, contouring hips and
buttocks, and adding breast size. More cosmetic surgeons are using internet media, creating a stir
and increasing the number of plastic surgeries. Additionally, this leads more women to compare
As individuals utilize their bodies for social comparison, particularly among women, social
media has had far too many negative effects on how people view their bodies. However, several
recent initiatives encourage young girls and women to appreciate their bodies as they have
developed. Top fashion manufacturers have made it their business to use models with a wide
range of body types to provide a more accurate representation of what women look like. The
focus of the purpose is on helping people embrace their identities and learn to love their bodies
through online media. Researchers explain how important it is for young people to have body
inspiration to believe they are attractive (Hogue & Mills, 2019). It also emphasizes how young
people do not need to attain the flawlessness shown in the media since such representation is
inaccurate. In the same way, self-perception is explored through online media when users can
berate and belittle others who share their images. Scientists continue to explain how internet
media undermines self-perception and causes users to continually question their greatness. The
internet has created a sense of secrecy where people believe that it is acceptable to make
comments about the appearance of others. As if posting the images online would “request it,” as
if the words were harmless and everyone could decide for themselves. Even though
self-perception mostly focuses on body weight, it also encompasses many other characteristics
that make people unique, such as skin color, real abnormalities, and the list. Through online
media, the body-positive goal continues to grow and may provide people with a positive example
to follow.
In conclusion, there is a strong connection between social media and body image. Social
media has altered people’s conceptions of their bodies, and they hold these conceptions to be
ideal. Social media frequently misleads individuals by portraying an idealized image of a
beautiful physique. Our bodies in real life differ from the body pictures we see on social media.
Most young women and girls are influenced by and aspire to the social media representation of
how to mold their bodies and seem. To define what constitutes a beautiful body, many people
have started attempting to compare their bodies to those displayed on social media. Many people,
especially young women and girls, seek body alterations from cosmetic surgeons due to their
impression of the ideal physique when they contrast it with others on social media. Some people
have modified their diets to incorporate extracurricular activities to achieve the ideal body image
they aspire to. As a result, awareness efforts about the body have occasionally grown to show
how social media misleads people about what constitutes a beautiful physique. Social media
provides many advantages, but individuals should only use it for things that will benefit
everyone, not for things that will affect our lives.
Methods
Social media have permeated all aspects of our life. We use it to interact with friends and
family, to stay up to date on news and information, and even to purchase. It is no wonder,
therefore, that social media influences our body image. The connection between social media
and body image is complicated. On the one hand, social media may help connect with others and
feel more connected to the world. Social media, on the other side, may be a negative factor,
contributing to body image concerns such as eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and
body shaming. This research aims to look at the connection between social media and body
image.
This investigation will specifically look at the various ways social media might influence
body image and the elements that contribute to these impacts. A correlational research strategy
will be used in this investigation. Participants will thus be separated into two groups: individuals
who use social media and those who do not. The IV will reflect the social media platforms used,
while the DV will reflect opinions on body image. Once for the study’s measurement of views on
body image. The social media type is the moderator variable, while self-objectification is the
mediating variable (Mills et al., 2018). A control group will not exist. Participants will act as
their supervisors. Compensation for this study will take the form of a $50 Amazon gift card.
Participants will be recruited through online forums and social media platforms. This research
has the potential to provide light on the interaction between social media and body image.
Understanding the many ways social media may influence body image and the elements that
contribute to these impacts allows us to create treatments to assist people at risk for body image
concerns.
The target population for this study is university students in the United States. The
participants in this study will be 1000 adults recruited from online panels. The response rate for
this study is inapplicable. The demographic composition of the sample is as follows: female
(45%), male (%), white (40%), African American (5%), Hispanic (2.5%), Asian (3.5%), and
other (4%). The sample is 18 to 24 years (Kelly et al., 2018). The convenience sampling
approach was used for this investigation. The inclusion criteria for this study are that participants
must be university students in the United States, aged 18-25, and use social media. The exclusion
criteria for this study are that participants cannot have any diagnosed mental health conditions
and who are not university students in the United States. Before participating in the study, all
participants will complete an informed consent form.
The instruments that will be used in this study are surveys and questionnaires. The
surveys and questionnaires will measure social media use and body image. The study will be
conducted online. Participants will be recruited through social media and other online platforms.
Once recruited, participants will be given a link to the online survey. The survey will take
approximately 20 minutes to complete (Mills et al., 2018). The questionnaire on social media use
will assess participants’ use of various social media sites. The body image questionnaire will
assess participants’ body satisfaction and body image issues. The self-objectification
questionnaire will assess individuals’ proclivity for self-objectification. The social media use
questionnaire will include questions concerning the participants’ social media use and their
feelings about it. The body image questionnaire will ask participants about their body satisfaction
and body image concerns. The self-objectification questionnaire will ask participants about their
predisposition for self-objectification. The online questionnaire will be housed on a secure
server. All information will be gathered and stored in a secure database. The data will be
accessible only to the researchers. The information will be kept private and anonymous.
The research will be divided into two sections. Participants will be asked to complete
measures of social media use, body image, and self-objectification in the first half. These
measures’ data will be utilized to analyze the association between social media use and body
image. Participants will be asked to complete a follow-up body image assessment in the second
section. This metric will determine if social media use affects body image over time (Keles et al.,
2020). The study will use a within-subjects design, with social media use and body image as the
dependent variables. The independent variable will be self-objectification. The study will use
SPSS to analyze the data. The p-value that will be used to indicate statistical significance is 0.05.
The participant characteristics that will be collected are age, gender, and social media use.
Descriptive statistics will summarize the data (Kelly et al., 2018). Pearson’s correlation
coefficient will be used in the study to investigate the association between social media use and
body image (Aalbers et al., 2019). A multiple regression analysis will investigate the moderating
function of self-objectification in the link between social media use and body image. The new
study has several advantages. First, questionnaires will allow for the collection of detailed data
on participants’ usage of social media, body image, and self-objectification. Second, using a
within-subjects design reduces the possibility of confounding factors.
Third, using SPSS will enable the implementation of complex statistical analysis. The
current study has numerous drawbacks as well. The use of self-report measures, for example,
may inject bias into the results. Second, using an online survey may lead to a non-representative
sample. Third, the use of a within-subjects design may limit the generalizability of the results.
One way to reduce the potential for bias in the data is to use a mixed-methods approach, which
involves collecting data from both self-report and observational measures (Mills et al., 2018).
Another way to reduce the potential for bias is to use a longitudinal design, which would allow
the data to be collected over time. Another way to reduce the potential for bias is to use a
representative sample. One way to increase the generalizability of the results is to use a
between-subjects design, allowing the data to be collected from a more extensive and diverse
sample. Despite these limitations, the study’s findings will have implications for developing
interventions to promote healthy body image.
The results of this investigation will assist us in better comprehending the interaction
between social media use and body image. This research will also reveal if social media is a
cause or result of body image concerns. There are, however, some limitations to this study that
should be noted. First, surveys and questionnaires may need to reflect participants’ actual
experiences accurately. Second, the use of a convenience sample may lead to selection bias.
Third, the study is limited to people aged 18-25 who use social media. Fourth, the study is
limited to people with no diagnosed mental health conditions. Despite these limitations, this
research is significant since it will aid in understanding the association between social media use
and body image. Th

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