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tomorrow’s schedule and writes some personal reminders before starting off
on her 30-minute commute home.
1. How effectively do you think Troi spent her day?
2. What does the case tell you about what it is like to be a project manager?
1 Slack is a communications program designed to manage the flow of information on a
project. See
Case 1.2
The Hokies Lunch Group1
Fatma settled down for lunch at the Yank Sing Chinese restaurant. She was
early and took the time to catch up on her e-mail. Soon she would be joined
by Jasper and Viktoria, two fellow 2014 grads from Virginia Tech in
Blacksburg, Virginia.
Jasper worked as a software engineer for a start-up company that
wanted to expand the boundaries of sharing economy. Viktoria was an
electrical engineer who worked for a German healthcare company in San
Francisco. They had met each other at a Silicon Valley alumni reception
hosted by Virginia Tech. Each of them felt a bit like a fish out of water on
the West Coast, so they decided to have lunch together each month. The
lunch evolved into a professional support group. A major part of each of
their jobs was managing projects, and they found it useful to share issues
and seek advice from each other.
Fatma worked for a very successful Internet company whose founders
believed that everyone in the firm should devote three days a year to
community service projects. The company was partnering with several
companies in the construction industry to renovate abandoned buildings for
low-income families. The next project was the renovation of an empty
warehouse into eight two-bedroom apartments. Fatma was part of the core
team in charge of scheduling and managing work assignments.
Viktoria and Jasper entered the restaurant together. Viktoria was the first
to move to the Bay Area. She was currently working on the next-generation
neural stimulator (“PAX 2”). Neural stimulators are electronic devices that
doctors implant in patients with wires connected to sources of pain in the
patient’s spine. In the past, patients would have to have an operation to
replace the stimulator battery every 10 years. PAX 2 was being designed to
page 24
take advantage of new battery technologies and use a
rechargeable battery. In concept, this battery system would
eliminate the need for replacement surgeries and allow the implanted
battery to be recharged externally. Viktoria’s team had just completed the
second prototype and was entering a critical testing phase. It had been
tricky trying to predict the lifespan of the new rechargeable battery without
testing it in real time. She was anxious to begin seeing the test results.
Jasper was working for a start-up company after doing contract work for
his first nine months in San Francisco. He was sworn to secrecy about the
project and all Fatma and Viktoria knew was that the project had something
to do with sharing economy. He was working with a small development
team that included colleagues from Bangalore, India, and Malmo, Sweden.
After ordering and chit-chatting a bit, Fatma started the discussion. “I
will be glad when this week is over,” she said. “We’ve been struggling
defining the scope of the project. At first glance our project seems relatively
simple, build eight two-bedroom apartments in an old warehouse. But there
are a lot of unanswered questions. What kind of community space do we
want to have? How efficient should the energy system be? What kind of
furniture? Everybody wants to do a good job, but when does low-income
housing morph into middle-income housing?”
Viktoria offered, “Scope defining is one of the things my company does
very well. Before a project is authorized, a detailed scope statement is
developed that clearly defines the project objectives, priorities, budget,
requirements, limits, and exclusions. All of the key stakeholders sign off on
it. It is really important to identify priorities up front. I know on the PAX 2
project that scope is the number one priority. I know that no matter how
long it takes it is imperative that my work is done right.”
Fatma responded, “That’s exactly what my project manager is preparing
for Friday’s meeting. I guess that one of the things you have to do as a
project manager is end discussions. He is going to make the tough calls and
finalize the project scope so we can begin planning.”
Jasper interjected, “You guys are so lucky; for the most part your scope
remains the same. In my work the scope is constantly changing. You show
the founders a feature they wanted, and they say, well, if you can do that,
can you do this? You know it’s going to happen, but you really can’t plan
for it.”
Jasper went on, “We do know what our number one priority is: time.
There are a lot of players trying to move in to the ‘space’ we are working
on. We have to demonstrate we are ahead of the pack if we are going to
continue to get VC funding.”2
Jasper said that despite the pressure, his project had been a lot of fun.
He especially liked working with his Swedish and Indian counterparts, Axel
and Raja. They worked like a global tag team on their part of the project.
Jasper would code and then pass his work on to Raja, who would work on it
and pass it on to Axel, who would eventually hand it off to Jasper. Given
the time zones, they were able to have at least one person working on the
code around the clock.
Jasper said it was hard at first working with someone he hadn’t met
personally other than on a video screen. Trust was an issue. Everyone was
trying to prove himself. Eventually a friendly competition arose across the
team. The programmers exchanged funny cartoons and YouTube videos. He
showed Fatma and Viktoria a YouTube video about scope creep that got a
chuckle from everyone.
They made plans to meet next at the new Peruvian restaurant on SE 8th
page 25
The Peruvian cilantro/lime ceviche was a big hit at the next lunch. Viktoria
began their discussion by reporting, “I have good and bad news. The bad
news is that our first prototype failed its tests miserably. The good news is
that I have a smart project manager. She knew this could happen, so she
mitigated the risk by having us working on two alternative battery
technologies. The alternative technology is passing all of the tests. Instead
of falling behind months, we are only days behind schedule.”
This precipitated a discussion of risk management. Fatma reported that
there had been a two-day session on risk management for the renovation
project. They spent the first day brainstorming what could go wrong, and
the second day coming up with strategies for dealing with risks. A big help
was the risk report that was generated after the last project. The report
detailed all of the problems that had occurred on the last renovation project
as well as recommendations. Fatma said, “I couldn’t believe how much
time and attention was devoted to safety, but as my project manager said,
‘all it takes is one bad accident to shut down a project for weeks, even
Jasper reported that on his project they spent very little time on risk
management. His project was driven by a build-test mentality. “Everybody
assumes that daily testing eliminates problems, but when it’s time to
integrate different features, that’s when the real bugs will emerge,” Jasper
Jasper went on to say that things were not going well at work. They had
missed their second straight milestone, and everyone was feeling the
pressure to show results. “I even slept by my cubicle three nights ago,”
Jasper confessed. Fatma asked, “How many hours are you working?” “I
don’t know, at least 70, maybe 80 hours,” Jasper answered. He went on to
say, “This is a high-stakes project, with a BIG upside if successful. I am
doing some of my best programming and we’ll just have to see what
Jasper showed them a cartoon that was being circulated across his team.
The caption read “When did you want it done? Yesterday.”
Fatma turned to her friends and said, “I need some advice. As you
know, I’m responsible for scheduling work assignments. Well, some of my
colleagues have been pretty aggressive lobbying for choice assignments.
Everyone wants to work alongside Bruno or Ryan. Suddenly I am
everyone’s friend, and certain people are going way out of their way to do
favors for me. I am sure they think it will influence my decisions. It’s
getting awkward and I am not sure what to do.”
“Quid pro quo,” answered Jasper, “that’s how the business world works.
You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours. Within reason, I don’t have a
problem with someone taking advantage of her position to garner favors
and build relationships.”
Viktoria said, “I disagree. You don’t want to be seen as someone whose
influence can be bought. You need to think what’s best for the company.
You need to ask yourself what Bruno and Ryan would want you to do. And
if you don’t know, ask them.”
After much discussion, Fatma left the restaurant leaning toward
Viktoria’s advice, but she wasn’t sure what the guidelines should be.
It took two months for the Hokies lunch group to get together again. Jasper
had canceled the last meeting because of work, so Viktoria and Fatma saw a
movie together instead.
page 26
Jasper was the last person to arrive and it was clear from the look on his
face that things were not going well. He sat down, avoiding eye contact,
before blurting, “I’m out of work.” “What do you mean?” Fatma and
Viktoria cried. Jasper explained after months and months of work they had
been unable to demonstrate a functional product.
Jasper went on to say, “Despite our best efforts we couldn’t deliver. The
founders couldn’t get an ounce of second-round venture funding, so they
decided to cut their losses and kill the project. I just spent the best six
months of my programming life for nothing.”
Fatma and Viktoria tried to comfort their friend. Fatma asked Jasper
how the others were taking the news. Jasper said the Swedish programmer,
Axel, took the news very hard. He went on to say, “I think he was burning a
lot of bridges at home with the long work hours and now he has nothing to
show for it. He started blaming us for mistakes we never made.” Raja, his
Indian counterpart, was a different story. “Raja seemed to shrug his
shoulders.” Jasper added, “He said, ‘I know I am a good programmer. There
are lots of opportunities here in Bangalore.’”
Fatma broke the silence that followed by saying to Jasper, “Send me
your resume. My company is always looking for top-notch programmers
and it is a really great company. Can you believe it, the two founders, Bruno
and Ryan, are working side by side with everyone on renovating the
warehouse? In fact, people were amazed at how good Bruno was with sheet
rock. A big part of my job now is scheduling their time so they can work
with as many different people as possible. They really want to use the
project to get to know their employees. This hasn’t been easy. I have had to
juggle their calendars, their abilities, and work opportunities.”
Viktoria interjected, “You’re using Microsoft Project to do this?” “Not
really,” responded Fatma. “At first I tried scheduling their work in
Microsoft Project, but it was too cumbersome and time consuming. Now I
just use the Project master schedule and each of their calendars to schedule
their work. This seems to work best.”
Viktoria added, “Yeah, Microsoft Project is a great program, but you
can get lost trying to get it to do everything. Sometimes all you need is an
Excel sheet and common sense.”
Viktoria felt awkward, given what had happened to Jasper. She was just
wrapping up the successful PAX 2 project. She was also getting ready for a
well-deserved holiday in Vietnam paid for by her project bonus. “I hate
closing out a project,” Viktoria said. “It’s so boring. Document, document,
document! I keep kicking myself for not tracking things when they
happened. I am spending most of my time scouring my computer for files. I
can’t wait to take off to Vietnam.”
Viktoria went on to say, “The only thing I liked doing was the project
Jasper asked, “What’s a project retrospective?” Viktoria answered, “It’s
when the project team gets together and reviews what went well and what
didn’t and identifies lessons learned that we can apply to future projects.
For example, one of the things we learned was that we needed to bring the
manufacturing people on board a lot sooner in the design process. We
focused on designing the very best product possible, regardless of cost. We
found out later that there were ways for reducing production costs without
compromising quality.”
Fatma added, “We do that, too, at the end of our projects, but we call it
an audit.”
page 27
Fatma asked Viktoria, “Do you know what your next assignment will
be?” “No,” she replied, “I will probably go back to my department and do
some testing. I’m not worried. I did good work. I am sure someone will
want me for their project.”
Jasper chimed in, “I sure hope someone wants me for their next
project.” Fatma and Viktoria immediately went into action, trying to lift
their friend’s spirits.
A little while later, they walked out of the restaurant and gave each
other hugs. Fatma reminded Jasper to send her his latest resume.
1. For each part (A, B, C), what phase of the project life cycle is each
project in? Explain.
2. What are two important things you learned about working on projects
from the case? Why are they important?
1 Hokies is the name associated with Virginia Tech athletic teams.
2 New venture capital funding.
Design elements: Snapshot from Practice, Highlight box, Case icon: ©Sky
1 It should be noted that PMBOK also includes Incremental and Iterative as two additional
approaches, which are beyond the scope of this text. Search for further details.
2 LEED certification was developed by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
(LEED) and is one of the most popular green building certification programs used
???????? ??????? ?????????
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Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 1
Project Management (MGT323)
Deadline:14/01/2023 @ 23:59
Course Name: Project Management
Course Code:MGT323
Student’s Name:
Semester: II
Student’s ID Number:
Academic Year:2022-23, II Term
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade:
Marks Obtained/Out of 15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
• The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only)
via allocated folder.
• Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
• Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks
may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your
information on the cover page.
• Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
• Late submission will NOT be accepted.
• Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from
students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO
marks. No exceptions. Atleast two Scholarly Peer- Reviewed Journals are
required as references.
• All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, doublespaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be
considered plagiarism).
• Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
• Do not make any changes in the cover page.
Assignment Workload:
• This Assignment comprise of a Case Study.
• Assignment is to be submitted by each student individually.
Assignment Purposes/Learning Outcomes:
After completion of Assignment-1 students will able to understand the
1. Defining the concepts, theories and approaches of project management. (L.O-1.1)
2. Recognize the steps of planning process in the project management. (L.O-1.2)
3. Analyze to work effectively and efficiently as a team member for project related
cases. (L.O-3.1)
Assignment-1-Case Study& Discussion Question
Assignment Question:
(Marks 10)
Please read the Case-1.2 “The Hokies Lunch Group.” from Chapter 1
“Modern Project Management” given in your textbook – Project
Management: The Managerial Process 8th edition by Larson and Gray page
no: 24-27 also refer to specific concepts you have learned from the chapter
to support your answers. Answer the following questions for Part-A, Part-B,
Part-C of the case study.
1. For each part (A, B, C) What phase of the project life cycle is
each project in? Expain (1 Mark each for A, B, C) Total
(3Marks). (200 words)
2. What are the two important things you learned about working
on projects from the case? Why are they important? Explain
for each part (A, B, C) (2 Marks each for A, B, C) Total (6
Marks). (300 words)
3. Describe the characters of “The Hokies Lunch Group”? (1
Mark) (100 words)
Discussion Question:
(5 Marks)
4. What impact will artificial intelligence (AI) have on the field
of project management? (3 Marks) Refer Chapter-2 (300
5. How are projects linked to the strategic plan? (2 Marks)
Refer Chapter-2 (200 words)
1. Part-A:
(1 mark)
(1 mark)
(1 mark)
2. Part-A:
(2 marks)
(2 marks)
(2 marks)
3. (1 Mark)
(3 Marks)
(2 Marks)
Because learning changes everything. ®
Chapter One
Modern Project
© 2021 McGraw -Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted w ithout the prior w ritten consent of McGraw -Hill Education.
An Overview of Project Management 8th Ed
© McGraw -Hill Education
Learning Objectives
Understand why project management (PM) is crucial in
today’s world
Distinguish a project from routine operations
Identify the different stages of a project life cycle
Describe how Agile PM is different from traditional PM
Understand that managing projects involves balancing the
technical and sociocultural dimensions of the project
?( ??? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??????PM) ? ??? ????? ????? ?????????1- 1
? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????2- 1
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? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????????PM ? ??? ??? ??????4- 1
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© McGraw -Hill Education
Chapter Outline
What Is a Project?
Current Drivers of Project Management
Agile Project Management
Project Management Today: A Socio-Technical Approach
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? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????1.2
? ????? ???????? ????????1.3
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© McGraw -Hill Education
Examples of Projects Given to Recent College Graduates
Business information: install new data security system
Physical education: develop a new fitness program for senior citizens
Marketing: execute a sales program for a new home air purifier
Industrial engineering: create a value chain report for every aspect of a key product from
design to customer delivery
Chemistry: develop a quality control program for an organization’s drug production
Management: implement a new store layout design
Pre-med neurology student: join a project team linking mind mapping to an imbedded
prosthetic that will allow blind people to function normally
Sport communication: create a promotion plan for a women’s basketball project
Systems engineers: develop data mining software of medical papers and studies related
to drug efficacy
Accounting: work on an audit of a major client
Public health: design a medical marijuana educational program
English: create a web-based user manual for a new electronics product
© McGraw -Hill Education
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????? ??????
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??© McGraw -Hill Education??
1.1 What Is a Project?
Project Defined (according to PMI)
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result
Major Characteristics of a Project
Has an established objective
Has a defined life span with a beginning and an end
Involves several departments and professionals
Involves doing something never been done before
Has specific time, cost, and performance requirements
) PMI ?????? ??????? (????
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© McGraw -Hill Education
Program versus Project
Program Defined
A group of related projects designed to accomplish a common goal over an extended period of
Program Management Defined
A process of managing a group of ongoing, interdependent, related projects in a coordinated
way to achieve strategic objectives
Project: completion of a required course in project management
Program: completion of all courses required for a business major
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?????? ????? ?????????
?• ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????
? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????: ?• ????????
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© McGraw -Hill Education
Comparison of Routine Work with Projects
Routine, Repetitive Work
Taking class notes
Writing a term paper
Daily entering sales receipts into the accounting
Setting up a sales kiosk for a professional accounting
Responding to a supply-chain request
Developing a supply-chain information system
Practicing scales on the piano
Writing a new piano piece
Routine manufacture of an Apple iPod
Designing an iPod that is approximately 2 X 4 inches,
interfaces with PC, and
stores 10,000 songs
Attaching tags on a manufactured product
Wire-tag projects for GE and
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?????????? ???? ????? ????????
??????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????
Apple iPod ???????? ???????? ??????
?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????????
© McGraw -Hill Education
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? ??????? ???? ? ????? ????? ???2 × 4 ? ?????iPod ?????? ?????
? ??????10000 ? ???????? ???????????
Wal-Mart ? ??GE ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????
Project Life Cycle
© McGraw -Hill Education
The Challenge of Project Management
The Project Manager
Manages temporary, non-repetitive activities and frequently acts independently of the formal
Marshals resources for the project.
Is the direct link to the customer.
Works with a diverse troupe of characters.
Provides direction, coordination, and integration to the project team.
Is responsible for performance and success of the project.
Must induce the right people at the right time to address the right issues and make the right
© McGraw -Hill Education
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1.2 Current Drivers of Project Management
Factors leading to the increased use of project management:
• Compression of the product life cycle
• Knowledge explosion
• Triple bottom line (planet, people, profit)
• Increased customer focus
• Small projects represent big problems
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© McGraw -Hill Education
1.3 Agile Project Management
Agile Project Management (Agile PM)
Agile Project Management (Agile
Is a methodology emerged out of frustration with
using traditional project management processes
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to develop software.
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Is now being used across industries to manage
projects with high levels of uncertainty.
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Employs an incremental, iterative process
.????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ???????
sometimes referred to as a ‘rolling wave’
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approach to complete projects.
.????? ??? ” ?????? ????????? ” ?????? ?????????
Focuses on active collaboration between the
project and customer representatives, breaking
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projects into small functional pieces, and
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adapting to changing requirements.
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Is often used up front in the defining phase to
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establish specifications and requirements, and
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then traditional methods are used to plan,
execute, and close the project.
.?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????
Works best in small teams of four to eight
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© McGraw -Hill Education
Rolling Wave Development
Iterations typically last from one to four weeks.
The goal of each iteration is to make tangible
progress such as define a key requirement, solve
a technical problem, or create desired features to
demonstrate to the customer.
At the end of each iteration, progress is reviewed,
adjustments are made, and a different iterative
cycle begins.
Each new iteration subsumes the work of the
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previous iterations until the project is completed
and the customer is satisfied.
© McGraw -Hill Education
1.4 Project Management Today: A Socio-Technical Approach
The Technical Dimension (The “Science”)
Consists of the formal, disciplined, purely logical parts of the process.
Includes planning, scheduling, and controlling projects.
The Sociocultural Dimension (The “Art”)
Involves the contradictory and paradoxical world of implementation.
Centers on creating a temporary social system within a larger organizational
environment that combines the talents of a divergent set of professionals working to
complete the project.
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