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Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 1
Quality Management (MGT 424)
Due Date: 14/01/2023 @ 23:59
Course Name: Quality Management
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT 424
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: Second
CRN:
Academic Year: 2022/23
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade:
/Out of 15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
1. Use quality improvement tools and practices for continuous improvement to
achieve the organizational change and transformation. (2.2)
2. Implement quality improvement efforts using teams for organizational assessment
and quality audits. (3.1)
•Instructions to search the article:
Via your student services page, log in to the Saudi Digital Library. After your
login with your student ID, search for the following article:
CUSTOMER-FOCUSED ENVIRONMENT: ORGANIZATIONS MUST
EXTEND THEIR DEFINITION OF CUSTOMERS.
ISSN: 03609936
In this article, the author discusses the different definition of customers either
internal or external and how satisfying all customers’ needs helps the organization
in term of accomplishing its quality objectives. Read the article, and answer the
following questions:
Assignment Question(s):
1. In your own words, summarize the article. ( 150 – 200 words ) ( 5 marks )
2. To which extent do you agree or disagree with the author point of view “that internal
customers’ needs are important as externals to create a true quality environment” and
Why? ( 150 – 200 words ) ( 5 marks )
3.
Discuss the tools needed to operate within the new environment as indicated by the
author. ( 100 – 150 words ) ( 5 mark )
Answers
1. Answer2. Answer3. Answer-
FACE OF QUALITY
CUSTOMER-FOCUSED
ENVIRONMENT
ORGANIZATIONS MUST EXTEND THEIR DEFINITION OF CUSTOMERS.
I
JIM L. SMITH
learned a long time ago that quality standards,
issues and performance are goals people can rally
around, unlike other goals like cost reduction or productivity improvement. Quality opens people up to
change because the change is for a good reason. It connects them with the customer and taps the motive of
pride in their work
This should not be a surprise to most of our readers
but to create a true quality environment an organization must first focus on the customer. The purpose of
all work and all improvement effort is to better serve
the customer.
This should be recognized by everyone as fundamental to survival, but unfortunately some managers
do not always do well with this concept, straightforward as it might seem. It is important, therefore, that
managers ensure that there is a common definition of
the basic words and phrases used in communicating
what they hope to accomplish and why.
Quality means satisfying customers’ needs and
expectations. It is this focus that is, in fact, the purpose
of all work. However, it seems not everyone has the
same understanding of the word quality, which results
in mixed messages.
If the focus of a quality environment is to satisfy
the needs and expectations of the customer, then the
basic premise of all other organizational needs will be
addressed: profitability, producing quality products
and services, improving productivity, out-performing
the competition, managing change, and ensuring
employee involvement.
Another critical definition is required. Just as some
people are apt to translate quality too narrowly, so
too may we consider customers in the same restrictive
sense. One of the single most powerful revelations in
my quality education has been that customers are not
only external but internal as well.
When our thoughts are extended to other departments and fellow employees as customers, significant
positive changes occur in the way work is done or, in
quality terms, in the way we deliver our outputs, products or services.
It is important to emphasize that satisfying the
needs of the external customers must be paramount.
As we strive to better meet the needs of internal customers, we must guard against diminishing external
customer satisfaction. The challenge is to see our
efforts as a total system designed to satisfy our traditional customers.
8 QUALITY | August 2019
08_QM0819-CLMN-Face.indd 8
The pursuit, the focus, is toward but one end, which
is to meet or exceed customer expectations. It is this
oneness of purpose that links all activities toward a
single end that makes the total quality environment.
The focus on internal customers and satisfying their
needs toward improving external customer satisfaction
has the potential to transform the organization from
one of departmental boundaries and barriers into one
of complementing rather than competing activities.
In this new environment information ceases to be
hoarded as a power cache and is shared not only within
the department but with others as well. Collaboration
is common, competition is not; partnerships are
sought, teamwork prevails; and continual improvement
of the system is the goal.
The customer focus when supported by this singlesystem attitude requires a new generation of management that is long past due for some organizations. The
traditional hierarchical organization restricts not only
management but all within it.
The organization that is capable of multi-department, cross-functional teamwork on a daily basis is
one where processes are seen as related parts of the
total quality system. People working in such an environment better understand not only the organization’s
mission, but their own role toward its accomplishment.
Consequently, people are better able to fulfill their
tasks and to improve on them.
Essentially, what is being described is the culture
of an organization. More than any other responsibility of management, the culture it creates, supports, or
maintains is critical to the ability of the organization
to provide the desired products and services.
Too often, however, management gives little thought
to the cultural tasks required to create and maintain
the environment. Typically, when management’s attention is on aspects of the work environment, it is in
response to conditions occurring because of management negligence. The recognition of internal customers, however, helps management address how best to
satisfy the needs of direct reports, work associates, and
other departments.
A true quality environment is driven by a focus on
the customer. This purpose provides our organization
direction as well as purpose.
Jim L. Smith has more than 45 years of industry experience in
operations, engineering, research & development and quality
management. You can reach Jim at faceofquality@qualitymag.com.
www.qualitymag.com
7/19/19 1:14 PM
Copyright of Quality is the property of BNP Media and its content may not be copied or
emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written
permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
The Handbook for
Quality Management
00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 1
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About the Authors
Thomas Pyzdek is a Six Sigma consultant with
more than 40 years of experience in the field. His
clients include Ford, McDonald’s, Intuit, Boeing,
Seagate, Avon Products, and many other
companies. Mr. Pyzdek is a recipient of the
American Society for Quality Edwards Medal for
outstanding contributions to the practice of
quality management and the E.L. Grant Medal
for outstanding leadership in the development
and presentation of meritorious educational
programs in quality. He has also received a Lean
Six Sigma Leadership award from the American
Quality Institute.
Paul Keller is president and chief operating
officer with Quality America, Inc. He has
developed and implemented successful Six
Sigma and quality improvement programs in
service and manufacturing environments. He is
the author of several books, including The Six
Sigma Handbook, Third Edition (coauthor), and
Six Sigma Demystified.
00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 2
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The Handbook for
Quality Management
A Complete Guide to Operational Excellence
Thomas Pyzdek
Paul Keller
Second Edition
New York Chicago San Francisco
Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City
Milan New Delhi San Juan
Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto
00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 3
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The Handbook for Quality Management
Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the
United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976,
no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or
stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
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ISBN 978-0-07-179924-9
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00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 4
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Contents
??? Preface
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xi
Part I Business-Integrated Quality Systems
1
Organizational Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Theory of Organization Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Functional/Hierarchical Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cross-Functional Organization Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process- or Product-Based (Horizontal) Organization
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forms of Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
5
6
8
9
10
12
2
The Quality Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Juran Trilogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Business Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regulatory Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Product Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Issues Relating to the Quality Function . . . . . . .
15
17
23
23
24
24
28
3
Approaches to Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deming’s Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total Quality Control in Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ISO 9000 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deming Prize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
European Quality Award . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total Quality Management (TQM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Six Sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
34
36
41
45
48
49
51
52
4
Customer-Focused Organizations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
Strategic Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organizational Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strategy Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
67
69
Part II Integrated Planning
5
v
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vi
Contents
Strategic Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Possibilities-Based Strategic Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strategic Development Using Constraint Theory . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Systems Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Constraint Management Principles
and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools of Constraint Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constraint Management Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
71
72
74
75
78
87
98
Understanding Customer Expectations and Needs . . . . . . . . . 105
Customer Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Customer Identification and Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Collecting Data on Customer Expectations and Needs . . . . . . . 113
Customer Service and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Focus Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
7 Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Getting Started with Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Why Benchmarking Efforts Fail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
8
Organizational Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Assessing Quality Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Organizational Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Cost of Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Part III Process Control
9
00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 6
Quantifying Process Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Descriptive Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Enumerative and Analytic Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Acceptance Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Statistical Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Variable Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Control Charts for Attributes Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Control Chart Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Control Chart Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Using Specifications for Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Process Capability Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
How to Perform a Process Capability Study . . . . . . . . . . 200
Statistical Analysis of Process Capability Data . . . . . . . . 202
Interpreting Capability Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
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Contents
10
Quality Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Types of Quality Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Product Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Process Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Systems Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Internal Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Two-Party Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Third-Party Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Desk Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Planning and Conducting the Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Auditor Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Internal Quality Surveys as Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Steps in Conducting an Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Audit Reporting Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Post-Audit Activities (Corrective Action, Verification) . . . . 220
Product, Process, and Materials Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Work Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Classification of Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Identification of Materials and Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Purchased Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Customer-Supplied Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Work-in-Process (WIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Finished Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Lot Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Materials Segregation Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Configuration Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Deviations and Waivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
11
Supply Chain Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Scope of Vendor Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Evaluating Vendor Quality Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Vendor Quality Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Post-Award Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Vendor Rating Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Special Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Partnership and Alliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
vii
Part IV Continuous Improvement
12
00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 7
Effective Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
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viii
Contents
Mechanisms Used by Change Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Building Buy-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Project Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Selecting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
DMAIC/DMADV Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 8
13
Define Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Project Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Work Breakdown Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Pareto Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Project Charters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Top-Level Process Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Team Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Team Dynamics Management, Including Conflict
Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Stages in Group Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Common Team Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Productive Group Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Counterproductive Group Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Management’s Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
14
Measure Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Process Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Metric Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Establishing Process Baselines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Measurement Systems Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Levels of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
15
Analyze Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Value Stream Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Analyze Sources of Process Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Quality Function Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Scatter Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Determine Process Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Correlation and Regression Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Least-Squares Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Interpretation of Computer Output for Regression
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
11/16/12 6:09 PM
Contents
ix
Analysis of Residuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Designed Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
16
Improve/Design Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Define New Operating/Design Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Define and Mitigate Failure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Process Decision Program Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Preventing Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
17
Control / Verify Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Recognition and Reward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Principles of Effective Reward Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Job Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Developing a Structured OJT Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Instructional Games, Simulations, and Role-Plays . . . . . . 359
Part V Management of Human Resources
00_Pyzdek_FM_pi-xii.indd 9
18
Motivation Theories and Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Theories X, Y, and Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
19
Management Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Judgmental Management Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Data-Based Management Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Combination Data-Based/Judgment Management
Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Participatory Management Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Autocratic Management Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Management by Wandering Around . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Fourth Generation Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
The Fifth Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
20
Resource Requirements to Manage the Quality Function . . . 381
Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Traditional Performance Appraisals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Criticisms of Traditional Employee Appraisals . . . . . . . . 386
Alternatives to Traditional Appraisals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
11/16/12 6:09 PM
x
Contents
Professional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Professional Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Professional Development Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Achieving the Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Coaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Situations That Require Coaching to Improve
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Forms of Coaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
A Control Chart Constants
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
B
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Control Chart Equations
C Area under the Standard Normal Curve
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
D
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Simulated Certification Exam Questions
R

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