Description

A cases study of prejudicial attitudes in the East – West context 

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
New York University Occidentalism and Colonialism Case Study
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

Recommended approach: well establish the key facts, not entering into irrelevant details; highlight the legal aspects of the case, as well as the reaction of the public opinion; draw conclusions 

 

Unformatted Attachment Preview

THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION TO CENTRAL AND
EASTERN EUROPE SINCE 1919
The Routledge Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919 is a compact
and comprehensive reference guide to the area, from the Treaty of Versailles to the
present day. With particular focus on the early nationalist and subsequent fascist
and communist periods, Adrian Webb provides an essential guide to the events,
people and ideas which have shaped Central and Eastern Europe since 1919.
Covering cultural, economic, political and environmental issues, this broad-ranging
and user-friendly volume explores both the common heritage and collective history
of the region, as well as the distinctive histories of the individual states. Key
features include:
•
•
•
•
•
wide-ranging political and thematic chronologies
maps for clear visual reference
special topics such as the economy, the environment and culture
a full list of of?ce holders and extensive biographies of prominent people in
all ?elds
a glossary of specialist terms.
With a wealth of chronological, statistical and tabular data, this handy book is an
indispensable resource for all those who wish to understand the complex history of
Central and Eastern Europe.
Dr Adrian Webb was a part-time lecturer at Southampton Solent University,
1996–2007. His publications include The Longman Companion to Germany since
1945 (1998) and The PDS: a symbol of eastern German identity? (2008).
ROUTLEDGE COMPANIONS TO HISTORY
Series Advisors: Chris Cook and John Stevenson
Routledge Companions to History offer perfect reference guides to key historical
events and eras, providing everything that the student or general reader needs to
know. These comprehensive guides include essential apparatus for navigating
through speci?c topics in a clear and straightforward manner – including
introductory articles, biographies and chronologies – to provide accessible and
indispensable surveys crammed with vital information valuable for beginner and
expert alike.
The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany
Roderick Stackelberg
The Routledge Companion to Early Modern Europe, 1453–1763
Chris Cook and Philip Broadhead
The Routledge Companion to Medieval Europe
Baerbel Brodt
The Routledge Companion to Twentieth Century Britain
Mark Clapson
The Routledge Companion to Britain in the Nineteenth Century, 1815–1914
Chris Cook
The Routledge Companion to European History since 1763
Chris Cook and John Stevenson
The Routledge Companion to World History since 1914
Chris Cook and John Stevenson
The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right
Peter Davies and Derek Lynch
The Routledge Companion to the Crusades
Peter Lock
The Routledge Companion to Historiography
Alun Munslow
The Routledge Companion to Decolonization
Dietmar Rothermund
The Routledge Companion to Britain in the Eighteenth Century, 1688–1820
John Stevenson and Jeremy Gregory
The Routledge Companion to the American Civil War Era
Hugh Tulloch
The Routledge Companion to the Stuart Age, 1603–1714
John Wroughton
The Routledge Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919
Adrian Webb
THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION TO
CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE
SINCE 1919
Adrian Webb
First published 2008
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008.
“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s
collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”
An enlarged and revised edition of The Longman Companion to Central and
Eastern Europe since 1919 published by Pearson Education Ltd 2002
© 2008 Adrian Webb
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or
reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,
mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter
invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any
information storage or retrieval system, without permission in
writing from the publishers.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Webb, Adrian, 1938–
The Routledge Companion to Central and Eastern Europe since 1919/Adrian Webb.
p. cm.—(Routledge companions to history)
Includes index.
1. Europe, Eastern–History–20th century. 2. Europe, Eastern–History–21st century.
3. Europe, Central–History–20th century. 4. Europe, Central–History–21st century. I. Title.
DJK48.5.W43 2008
943.0009’04—dc22
ISBN 0-203-92817-2 Master e-book ISBN
ISBN 10: 0-415-44563-9 (hbk)
ISBN 10: 0-415-44562-0 (pbk)
ISBN 10: 0-203-92817-2 (ebk)
ISBN 13: 978-0-415-44563-4 (hbk)
ISBN 13: 978-0-415-44562-7 (pbk)
ISBN 13: 978-0-203-92817-2 (ebk)
ISBN 0-203-93689-2 Master e-book ISBN
FOR MISS T. T.
CONTENTS
Introductory note: the scope of this book
Geographical equivalents
Politically inspired name changes
Personal names
A brief guide to pronunciation
Acknowledgements
Section I
The reordering of Europe
1
1.1
1.2
2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
Section II
x
xii
xiv
xv
xvi
xviii
The background to 1919
Versailles, the establishment of the new order and its
consequences
The concept and history of nationalism in eastern
Europe
Authoritarianism, fascism and the problem of
national minorities from 1919 to 1939
Anti-Semitism
The liberal tradition
Communism
Titoism
Politics since 1990
7
14
19
24
26
29
37
39
Historical chronology of key events
45
2.1
2.2
46
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
Key events before Versailles
Key events from Versailles to the outbreak of the
Second World War
Key events during the Second World War
Key events between the end of the Second World
War and the death of Stalin
Key events during the Communist period 1953–89
Key events since the fall of Communism
Central and eastern Europe excluding Yugoslavia
The disintegration of Yugoslavia and its aftermath
50
61
70
85
96
96
113
CONTENTS
Section III
Thematic chronologies
139
3.1
3.2
3.3
140
154
The rise of authoritarianism 1919–39
Anti-Semitism: character, scale and scope
Wartime administration, collaboration, government
and resistance
3.4 Post-war retribution and revenge
3.5 Communism
3.5.1 The post-war consolidation of Communist
power
3.5.2 The purges and the show trials
3.5.3 The struggle between church and state
3.5.4 Orthodoxy and reform 1953–90
3.5.5 The reformed Communist Parties since 1990
3.6 Foreign affairs
3.6.1 Regional agreements and alliances 1919–39
3.6.2 Wartime allegiances
3.6.3 The Communist period
3.6.4 Regional relations and relations with East
and West since 1990
Section IV
Section V
158
166
169
169
179
182
185
188
191
191
196
198
207
The nation states
213
4.1
4.2
214
Introduction
States and regions of central and eastern Europe:
origins, characteristics and particularisms
4.3 The countries of ‘further’ eastern Europe
4.4 The impact of the EU, NATO and Russia since 1990
215
230
233
Special topics
243
5.1
244
244
247
The economy
5.1.1 The economy 1919–39
5.1.2 The impact of the Second World War
5.1.3 Post-war reconstruction under Communist
rule
5.1.4 The impact of 1990
5.1.5 The economy: recent developments
5.1.6 Comparative GDP
5.2 The environment
5.2.1 The Communist legacy
5.2.2 The impact of 1990
5.3 Human statistics
5.3.1 Population statistics
5.3.2 Ethnic minorities
viii
248
252
253
255
257
257
259
263
263
264
CONTENTS
5.4
Section VI
5.3.3 War losses
5.3.4 The post-war migrations
5.3.5 Life expectancy in years (2003)
Culture
5.4.1 Cosmopolitanism and cultural nationalism
5.4.2 The Arts under Fascism and Communism
5.4.3 Post-war rebuilding of the national heritage
5.4.4 Linguistic politics
265
266
267
268
268
269
271
272
People
275
6.1
276
276
6.2
6.3
6.4
Of?ce holders
6.1.1 Heads of State
6.1.2 Heads of government (prime ministers/
premiers, unless otherwise indicated)
6.1.3 Heads of the Communist Party Politburo
Communist Party membership statistics
Major assassinations, suicides and political
executions
Biographies
283
294
296
298
300
Section VII
Glossary of specialist terms
327
Section VIII
Historiography
335
Maps
Index
345
349
ix
INTRODUCTORY NOTE: THE SCOPE OF
THIS BOOK
Dividing history into periods is notoriously arti?cial, but by any historical standard,
1919 marked a new beginning in central and eastern Europe. Politically, it had been
largely divided for at least two centuries, and in many areas for much longer, between
the competing empires of Austria, Germany, Russia and Turkey. (See map.) In 1917,
however, the Russian Empire had been defeated by Germany. That German victory
was overtaken the following year by the defeat of Austria–Hungary, Germany and
Turkey, which marked the end of the First World War in November 1918. This defeat
of all the imperial powers created a vacuum unparallelled before or since in which
the political system could be completely reordered in accordance with the nationality
principle. Poland and Lithuania returned to the map of Europe as sovereign states.
Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia appeared for the ?rst time, Estonia and Latvia for
the ?rst time as independent entities. Further east, Georgia and the Ukraine brie?y
enjoyed autonomy. (See map.)
If the timescale of this book is easy to justify, its geographical limits are very
much harder. This is to no small degree because the terms ‘Central’ and particularly
‘Eastern’ Europe have been used to describe subjective perceptions rather than
objective geographical realities. Before 1919, Central Europe was broadly understood
as the territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire ruled from Vienna, and Eastern
Europe as the territory of the Russian Empire ruled from Saint Petersburg. The
Balkans, comprising the independent states of Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania and
Serbia, together with substantial tracts of the Austro-Hungarian and Turkish Empires,
formed a third grouping. The new and enlarged states established in 1919 sought to
give themselves a more western orientation, but their ambitions enjoyed a mixed
response. For their German-speaking neighbours, most of them remained essentially
subordinate, colonial peoples, and under Hitler, they could be swept aside in the
creation of a new German Lebensraum in the east stretching far into what had become
the Ukrainian and Caucasian Republics of the Soviet Union. For the British and the
French, Eastern Europe comprised the states between Germany and the Soviet Union,
whose prime interest, particularly for the French, was their presumed role as allies in
the event of another German attack in the west. Embarassing as it may be to recall now,
they were identi?ed primarily with romantic revolutionaries, Ruritanian monarchs
with colourful mistresses, and ‘being troublesome’. Chamberlain was merely being
truthful when he declared that ‘Czechoslovakia is a far away country of which we
know nothing’.
INTRODUCTORY NOTE: THE SCOPE OF THIS BOOK
After 1945, ‘Eastern Europe’ was the term adopted virtually universally to describe
the Soviet bloc until its demise in 1990. The term, however, normally excluded the
Soviet Union itself. It also ignored the anomaly that Prague is west of Vienna. This
new ‘Eastern Europe’ was again as much a theatre as a real place, with Berlin at
centre stage. Few of its governments recognised any responsibility for national actions
taken during the Second World War. Even the Austrians, who had contributed Hitler,
had been the victims of Nazism. It was now the scene of the struggle between east
and west, between good and evil, between light and darkness, between Communism
and democracy: the assessment depending on the standpoint of the speaker. It was
appreciated only slowly that the bloc was far from monolithic.
Its dissolution in 1990 permitted the restoration of a more diversi?ed image. Some
de?nitions became easier, others harder. German uni?cation effectively moved East
Germany from ‘East’ to ‘West’. The ‘Visegrad’ group of Czechoslovakia, Hungary
and Poland emerged as the nucleus of a new ‘Central Europe’, associated in varying
degrees with both Austria and the former Yugoslav republic of Slovenia. ‘Eastern
Europe’ came increasingly to mean the Balkans, really south-eastern Europe, while
Eastern Europe in the geographical sense implicitly meant the states which had
emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, and which, with the
exception of the Baltic states, are now grouped in the Commonwealth of Independent
States (CIS).
In order to give this book some coherence against such shifting sands, it has been
decided to focus on an ‘Eastern Europe’ de?ned as the 1945–90 Soviet bloc, including
Albania and also Yugoslavia with whose history it was intimately involved, together
with the Baltic States, Moldova and Ukraine during their periods of independence, in
view of their increased western orientation. (Readers particularly interested in East
Germany are referred to the present author’s Companion to Germany since 1945.) That
focus is complemented by considerable attention to Austria whose history between
1919 and 1938, and to some extent since 1990, is an integral part of the history of
central and eastern Europe. Reference to Greece is restricted to the limited number
of occasions when it directly affected developments in its northern neighbours. That
is not to imply that Greece is unimportant, merely that its inclusion would introduce
so many considerations particular to itself, notably Cyprus and tension with Turkey,
that this book might become unwieldy.
Other countries now independent but formerly part of the Soviet Union are largely
excluded in view of their very different history. It is appreciated that their exclusion
creates some anomalies, but history is never tidy, and they are accordingly covered
in outline in section 4.3 in an attempt to meet this dif?culty.
xi
GEOGRAPHICAL EQUIVALENTS
The names under which most central and easten European places are now normally
known to English speakers are the names in the national language, but that was much
less the case in earlier decades. Moreover, political and linguistic boundaries have
remained in a state of ?ux. Again, many names have been changed and then changed
back, with the rise and fall of political ideologies. The text of this book normally adopts
the name which would have been in use at the time in question, with the current name
in brackets where it seems appropriate. Older or foreign sources may follow different
conventions, and the following list is designed to help the reader accordingly. Major
cities and features with established English names such as Belgrade, Prague and
Warsaw have been excluded.
Current name
Equivalent name
Alba Iulia (Romanian)
Bratislava (Slovak)
C?eské Bude?jovice (Czech)
Cheb (Czech)
Chisinau (Romanian)
Cieszyn (Polish)
Cluj (Romanian)
Dn(i)estr (Russian/Ukrainian)
Durrës (Albanian)
Dubrovnik (Serbo-Croat)
Gdánsk (Polish)
Kaliningrad (Russian)
Karlovy Vary (Czech)
Kaunas (Lithuanian)
Kyiv (Ukrainian)
Lviv (Ukrainian)
Gyulafehérvar (Hungarian)
Pressburg (German)
Budweis (German)
Eger (German)
Kishinev (Russian)
Tešín (Czech), Teschen (German)
Kolozsvar (Hungarian)
Nestru (Romanian)
Durazzo (Italian)
Ragusa (Italian)
Danzig (German)
Königsberg (German)
Carlsbad (German)
Kovno (Russian)
Kiev (Russian)
Lvov (Russian), Lwow (Polish), Lemberg
(German)
Marienbad (German)
Crna Gora (Serbo-Croat)
Nagyva?rad (Hungarian)
Pilsen (German)
Fiume (Italian)
Saseno (Italian)
Scutari (Italian)
Oedenburg (German)
Mariánské Lázne? (Czech)
Montenegro (extraterritorial Italian)
Oradea Mare (Romanian)
Plzen? (Czech)
Rijeka (Serbo-Croat)
Sazan (Albanian)
Shkodër (Albanian)
Sopron (Hungarian)
GEOGRAPHICAL EQUIVALENTS
Szczecin (Polish)
Tirgu Mures (Romanian)
Transnistria (Romanian)
Trento (Italian)
Vilnius (Lithuanian)
Vlorë (Albanian)
Wroclaw (Polish)
Zadar (Serbo-Croat)
Zagreb (Serbo-Croat)
Stettin (German)
Marosvasarhely (Hungarian)
Transdniestria (Russian)
Trent (German)
Wilno (Polish), Vilna (Russian)
Valona (Italian)
Breslau (German)
Zara (Italian)
Agram (German)
xiii
POLITICALLY INSPIRED NAME CHANGES
The Communist period saw the widespread renaming of towns and streets in honour
of Communist heroes, although Stalin was rapidly expunged, except in Georgia,
after Khrushchev’s denunciation in 1956. Most reverted rapidly after 1990, and
Kaliningrad is the only important exception at the time of writing (2007). The more
important changes are listed below.
Traditional name
Communist name
Bazardjik
Chemnitz
Dunaujvaros
Eisenhüttenstadt
Ones?ti
Pernik
Podgorica
Shumen
Varna
Zlin
Tolbukhin
Karl-Marx-Stadt
Sztalinvaros
Stalinstadt
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
Dimitrovo
Titograd
Kolarovgrad
Stalin
Gottwaldov
Street-name changes are far too numerous to be recorded here, but it should be noted
that there has been considerable resistance in eastern Germany to total change. Marx
and Engels are felt by many to be part of the national heritage and worthy of continuing
commemoration. Karl-Marx-Allee (once Stalinallee) in East Berlin is likely to remain.
PERSONAL NAMES
As with geographical names, English-language sources now usually quote foreign
personal names in the form native to the speaker. That used to be much less the
case, and there are still some exceptions, particularly when familiar forenames such
as Peter are involved. This book normally prefers the native form in the interests of
consistency, e.g. Franz-Josef rather than Francis-Joseph, and Karl rather than Charles,
for the last two emperors of Austria–Hungary, and Beneš rather than Benesh for the
second Czechoslovak president.
The transliteration of names from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet has its own
dif?culties. Transliterations from the Bulgarian and the Ukrainian now tend to be
simpler, if slightly less exact, and ‘ch’ is preferred to ‘tch’, ‘-ev’ to ‘-eff ’ and ‘y’ to
‘j’. Serb names, however, are now normally given in the parallel Croat spelling rather
than transliterated in accordance with Western norms. Bulgarian names (like Russian
names) are, therefore, pronounced broadly as an English speaker would expect, while
Serb names are not. This book follows modern practice throughout so that the same
name does not appear in two different forms in the same volume.
A BRIEF GUIDE TO PRONUNCIATION
It would clearly be impossible to give a detailed guide to the pronunciation of all the
central and eastern European languages, and it is hardly necessary, but the following
notes may help those unfamiliar with them to approach the names of places and people
with more con?dence and to recognise them when they are pronounced by a native
speaker. Cassettes are readily available for more detailed study.
The great majority of the region’s languages, including Bulgarian, Czech,
Macedonian, Polish, Russian, Ruthenian, Serbo-Croat, Slovak, Slovene, Ukrainian
and White Russian, belong to the Slavonic group and are closely related. Only Polish,
which, with French and Portuguese, is one of the few European languages to have
developed nasal vowels, is signi?cantly different. Different spellings can, therefore,
mask very similar sounds or linguistic relationships. Czech hrad, for example, is the
same as Bulgarian grad (city). Many words, not least pivo (beer), are common to all.
In so far as speci?c Slavonic spellings are concerned:
c? (Czech, Serbo-Croat, Slovak) = English ‘ch’ as in church.
cz (Polish) = English ‘ch’, likewise.
c? (Serbo-Croat) = a rather weaker version of the above with no exact English
equivalent; closest to ‘tch’.
c (Polish) = similar to the previous, but not con?ned to the end of words.
c (Czech, Serbo-Croat, Slovak) = usually the English ‘ts’ as in cats.
j (Czech, Polish, Serbo-Croat, Slovak)= English ‘y’ as in yacht when found at the
beginning of words, but also, again like the English ‘y’, marks a diphthong after a
vowel: oj = English ‘oy’ as in boy, and aj = English ‘igh’ as in sight.
? (Polish) = the ‘l’ in English cold, rather than the ‘l’ in English lamp. By an evolution
similar to that in the Cockney pronunciation of cold (couwd), it can approximate to
an English ‘w’.
š (Czech, Serbo-Croat, Slovak) = English ‘sh’ as in ship.
sz (Polish) = English ‘sh’ as in ship.
szcz (Polish) = a soft guttural sound with no standard English equivalent, but very
close to the soft ?nal ‘ch’ of the German ‘Ich’ (I).
w (Polish) = English ‘v’ as in victor.
ž (Czech, Polish, Serbo-Croat, Slovak) = English ‘s’ as in pleasure. The same
sound is transliterated from the Cyrillic alphabet as ‘zh’, as in Zhdanov, Zhivkov,
Zhukov.
Hungarian is related to no other central or eastern European language, and it has
its own distinctive spelling conventions, although its pronunciation is much less
A BRIEF GUIDE TO PRONUNCIATION
problematic to the outsider than that of, say, Polish. Principal among its spelling
conventions are:
cs = English ‘ch’ as in church.
gy = English ‘j’ as in jelly. (Nagy is thus pronounced like English ‘Nodge’.)
s = English ‘sh’ as in ship.
sz = English ‘s’ as in sing. (Stalin is thus written Sztalin.)
ö = the German or Swedish pronunciation of the same spelling, which has no exact
equivalent in standard English but is close to the ?nal ‘er’ in such words as hammer.
o? = a more emphatic form of the foregoing, close to the standard English ‘ur’ as
in burn.
Romanian is central and eastern Europe’s only Romance (derived from Latin)
language and has discernible similarities with French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.
Its main spelling conventions are:
c = before ‘e’ or ‘i’ English ‘ch’ as in church, otherwise English ‘k’ as in king.
s? = English ‘sh’ as in ship.
i = is mute at the end of words.
oe = the English ‘oy’ as in boy.
(As an example of the three foregoing rules, the town of Ploes?ti is pronounce
‘Ploysht’.) Moldovan (Moldavian) is essentially the same language as Romanian.
It was written in the Cyrillic alphabet during the Soviet period.
xvii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
It is a particular pleasure to record my thanks to Professor Bruce Graham of the
University of Sussex who both encouraged me to write this book and gave valuable
comments on some of the text. Any remaining errors of fact or interpretation are,
of course, strictly my responsibility. I must also offer my sincere thanks to Dr Chris
Cook for his advice, friendship and support.
I am indebted to the staffs and resources of the libraries of the University of
Sussex and the West Sussex County Library, Chichester, and, not least, to the staff
of Routledge for their continuing assistance and patience.
Above all, though, I must thank my wife, Valerie, for her sel?ess advice, criticism
and technological expertise over a very long period of time.
I
THE REORDERING OF EUROPE
1.1
THE BACKGROUND TO 1919
It can be argued persuasively that the First World War was a struggle for mastery
between rival empires driven by economic and strategic concerns: that it was, in
short, a war waiting to happen. Proponents of that view can point to the string of
crises from 1900 onwards which threatened to bring Britain, France and Germany,
in particular, into con?ict, and the tension generated by Anglo-German naval
rivalry. None of these crises, however, had actually led to war. Indeed, many of
the points at issue either had been resolved or were well on the way to being
resolved by the end of 1913, although the underlying animosities and suspicions
certainly remained, as was witnessed by the enthusiasm with which the outbreak
of war was to be received in Berlin, London and Paris. Nevertheless, the war
which actually materialised was triggered by speci?cally Balkan rivalries and
tensions.
The Balkans had been unstable for the best part of a century for several
interrelated reasons, some of which were to outlive the post-war settlement of
1919 and remain live to this day. The most obvious was the progressive political
decay of the Turkish Empire. The Empire, which in 1683 had included Hungary
and had launched the siege of Vienna – half way to London from Istanbul – had lost
its dynamism during the eighteenth century, and the nineteenth century had seen
successive struggles for independence by its European colonies. Serbia had been
the ?rst to rebel in 1804, and its autonomy had been internationally recognised
in 1829, but Greece in 1830 had been the ?rst to gain full independence. The
Turks had been obliged progressively to recognise the autonomy of Moldavia
and Wallachia, the core of the modern Romania, in 1856, and of Bulgaria in
1878. The full independence of Serbia and Romania had come in 1878 and
of Bulgaria in 1908. Albania had gained independence of a kind as recently
as 1912.
The national liberation movements had enjoyed little general support from
the outside world, a factor which has contributed to a certain inwardness of
outlook. British governments, responsible for the world’s largest empire, were
unsympathetic in principle and were always nervous as to the implications for
Ireland. More speci?cally, the Turkish Empire was seen as a bulwark against
Russian expansionism, and it was British policy throughout the century to prop
it up, even at the expense of offending domestic public opinion. The Austrians,
the Turks’ most obvious imperial rivals in the Balkans, similarly saw the Turks
as necessary for their own survival by virtue of their holding Balkan nationalist
2
THE BACKGROUND TO 1919
aspirations in check. They also preferred Turkish to national rule, because it
provided a single framework for their plans for economic investment, notably
in railways. The French were only really interested in Romania, on account
of its Latin roots, and Germany’s celebrated Chancellor, Bismarck, famously
considered the Balkans not to be worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier.
Russia alone, the one power with some emotional attachment to the Balkan Slavs
and with its own strategic ambition of controlling Constantinople (Istanbul)
and gaining access to the Mediterranean, had a clear interest in diminishing
Turkish suzerainty. Russia, however, had lost the Crimean War and was not
in a position to promote her own interests at the expense of those of the other
powers.
In practice, the Great Powers had met sporadically, most notably at the
Congress of Berlin in 1878, to regulate and con?rm, but not usually radically
alter, what had already happened on the ground. Their real concern was to ensure
that none of their own number gained suf?cient advantage to disturb the wider
European balance of power.
For all their ethnic and geographical differences, the new states had a lot in
common. They all, except Albania, belonged primarily to the Orthodox branch of
Christianity organised on nationally independent (autocephalous) lines, and drew
a proportion of their sense of national identity from the ?ght against the Turk and
Islam, which were indissolubly linked. Prior to their conquest by the Turks in
the fourteenth and ?fteenth centuries, they had formed part of the Byzantine
world (see section VII, Glossary). That world, however, had lost any effective
central direction centuries before its ?nal demise, and power had been exercised
from a number of changing centres over expanding and contracting areas with
very ?uid boundaries. Virtually every one of the new national boundaries could,
therefore, be contested. The new Balkan states also shared many economic and
social characteristics. Production was overwhelmingly agricultural and heavy
industry almost unknown, apart from mining. The Greek merchant marine which
had grown apace after independence was a case apart. Railways were few and
educational levels generally low. Power lay with the monarchy and a small
governing class drawn from the emerging bourgeoisie. Much commerce was
in Greek hands. Only Serbia was not led by a monarch drawn from the seemingly
inexhaustible pool of German princes. That bond of sympathy was sometimes
contradicted by the stance of the small number of intellectuals, who in Romania
in particular looked towards France. It was also contradicted in the Slav lands of
Bulgaria and Serbia by the powerful force of pan-Slavism, part intellectual, part
popular, part religious, which stressed the close cultural and linguistic links of
the Slav peoples with each other and with their largest community, the Russians,
in particular.
Not least, they shared an intense nationalism and the unstable blend of
insecurity and assertiveness which is so often the legacy of colonial rule. This
was a source of potential tension with the large ethnic minorities in virtually
every state. When combined with the region’s uncertain frontiers, con?ict was
3
THE REORDERING OF EUROPE
predictable, and the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 gave the Balkans a reputation
for instability which was to dog it throughout the twentieth century.
These new states adjoined the large areas of what is now Bosnia and the Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, where slightly different conditions applied.
Turkish in?uence had penetrated more deeply. The Turkish minority itself was
larger, and a signi?cant proportion of the local population in some parts had
converted to Islam. To this day, the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, has in many places
the look of a Turkish city. The new fashion of nationalism also had a much less
certain focus. The dialects of Bosnia could be described as Serb, but those of
Macedonia were more akin to Bulgarian. There was no memory, however remote
or arti?cial, of a predecessor state. Moreover, the rugged terrain, just as

“Place your order now for a similar assignment and have exceptional work written by our team of experts, guaranteeing you A results.”

SUPPORT

support@classmatetutor.com

About us

Contact us

User reviews

Become a freelance writer

FAQ’s

OUR SERVICES

 

Persuasive essays

Expository essays

Compare and contrast Essays

Persuasive essays

Argumentative essays

Narrative essays

Definition essays

Informative essays

MAIN

Place order

Our Affiliate program

Privacy Policy

 

LEGAL

Our privacy policy

Terms and conditions

Our Cookie Policy

Confidentiality policy

 

 

Disclaimer: Writemasters is a professional essay writing service, providing custom assistance for research and reference purposes only. The use of our work must comply with all academic guidelines and integrity standards. Copyright © 2009 - 2024
7904 Dorothy St, Rosemead, CA 91770
Open chat
1
Need help? Chat Now
Scan the code
Hello, welcome to our instant WhatsApp chat. We are online and ready to assist.
How can we help you today?