Perhaps the best way to learn how variables are chosen, operationalized, and measured is by going over specific examples in the literature. Select one of the articles included below.  If a study has more than one phase, select one phase. If a study has more than one hypothesis, select one hypothesis (preferably the main hypothesis). Follow the format below. Titles are in bold and descriptions of what should be included are written beside them.  Please see the Example below this assignment.Answers should be brief and clear. Identify the following in the article you selected. Use your textbook and the example below to guide you. Present the information as follows (with the following headers seen in bold): Study's APA Reference: Include the APA reference.Background: Write 1-2 sentences providing information on the background literature leading to this study. Make sure to include secondary source citations as needed. This should highlight the existing literature to provide a general overview.  

  • GAP:  Write 1-2 sentences identifying the GAP in the literature that the study addresses. 
  • Impetus: Write 1 sentence explaining the reasoning behind the study. The impetus is the 'greater' reason for doing this study: Why is the study important? This is beyond the immediate aim of the study and is concerned with how the information can be used beyond the study.  
  • Purpose: Write the purpose for this study. The purpose is directly related to this study. This should bring together the gap and impetus to the immediate measurable objectives of this research study.
  • Research Question: Write a clear research question for the study. 

Hypothesis: There may be more than one hypothesis. Choose the main hypothesis, if there is one. If not, choose one. The hypothesis you write should include the variables you identify as the IV and DV (or Predictor and Criterion). Independent/Predictor Variable(s):  Insert the IV/PV.  Provide both a general name for each variable (e.g., “time”) and the specific operational definition and type of the variable used by the study (e.g., Before and After the class intervention, Categorical, dichotomous).

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Perhaps the best way to learn how variables are chosen, operationalized, and measured is by going over specific examples in the literature. Select one of the articles included below.  If a study has more than one phase, select one phase. If a study has more than one hypothesis, select one hypothesis (preferably the main hypothesis)
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  • IV:  
  • IV Operationalized: How is the IV measured or presented? 
  • IV Scale: Identify the scale of measurement for the IV. 

Dependent/Criterion Variable(s):  Insert the DV/CV and the operationalized DV Provide both a general name for each variable (e.g., “anxiety”) and the specific operational definition used by the study (e.g., manifest anxiety scale, continuous, interval).

  • DV:
  • DV Operationalized: How is the DV measured or presented? 
  • DV Scale: Identify the scale of measurement for the DV. 

Participants:  Identify the participants in the study. Type of Research Design:  Quantitative or Qualitative (and why – consider the type of data being collected here)Validity of the Measure: Address the validity of the measure identifying the type of validity addressed and how. Include the various types of validity covered and discussed earlier in the course.  This may not be reported in the research article itself, thus you should evaluate this with your new knowledge base. Reliability of the Measure: Address the reliability of the measure. Include the reliability information reported by the researchers for these measures. Remember to include secondary source citations as needed.Validity of the Study: Address the internal and external validity of the study.Choose from the following articles (click to download below or in the announcements-  the reference is excluded so you will write it) :

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